Система Orphus
11.04.2014 Fossil galaxy may be one of first ever formed
The stars in the nearby Segue 1 dwarf galaxy have low abundances of elements heavier than helium
Author:  Clara Moskowitz
Shows: 73
09.04.2014 Oldest Cardiovascular System Found in Ancient Shrimplike Creature
Scientists unearth the earliest known mechanism for pumping blood in the ancestor of modern crustaceans
Author:  Nsikan Akpan
Shows: 85
08.04.2014 Gravitational-wave finding causes 'spring cleaning' in physics
Big Bang findings would strengthen case for multiverse and all but rule out a 'cyclic Universe'
Author:  Ron Cowen
Shows: 105
04.04.2014 Fabricating nanostructures with silk could make clean rooms green rooms
Tufts University engineers have demonstrated that it is possible to generate nanostructures from silk in an environmentally friendly process that uses water as a developing agent and standard fabrication techniques.
Author:  Kim Thurler
Shows: 138
02.04.2014 International Year of Crystallography
The International Year of Crystallography 2014 commemorates not only the centennial of X-ray diffraction, which allowed the detailed study of crystalline material, but also the 400th anniversary of Kepler’s observation in 1611 of the symmetrical form of ice crystals, which began the wider study of the role of symmetry in matter
Shows: 153
27.03.2014 Algae Work as Biofuel Source Even in Cold Climates
Even in a cool climate as in Finland, algae might be used to produce biochemicals and biofuels, besides use in capture of industrial carbon dioxide emissions. The ALGIDA project coordinated by VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland explored algae growing in Finland
Author:  Навіть у кліматі такої холодної країни, як Фінляндія, водорості можна використовувати як для вловлювання викидів двоокису вуглецю від промисловості, так і для вироблення біохімікатів та біопалив
Shows: 135
21.03.2014 Largest Genome Ever Sequenced
Loblolly pine genome seven times longer than ours
Author:  Thomas Sumner
Shows: 176
19.03.2014 Thermal vision: Graphene light detector first to span infrared spectrum
The first room-temperature light detector that can sense the full infrared spectrum has the potential to put heat vision technology into a contact lens
Shows: 181
18.03.2014 Pluto Regains Its Title as Largest Object in Its Neighborhood
Distant world surpasses its rival, Eris, in new analysis
Author:  Ken Croswell
Shows: 163
07.03.2014 Data from pocket-sized genome sequencer unveiled
Results from Oxford Nanopore's MinION are promising, but fall short of high expectations.
Author:  Erika Check Hayden
Shows: 191
20.02.2014 Theory on origin of animals challenged: Some animals need extremely little oxygen
Studies of a small sea sponge fished out of a Danish fjord shows that complex life does not need high levels of oxygen in order to live and grow
Shows: 285
17.02.2014 Lifespans predictable at early age
Worm study suggests that activity in mitochondria determines ageing
Author:  Brendan Borrell
Shows: 333
14.02.2014 Graphene conducts electricity ten times better than expected
Carbon layers grown on silicon carbide conduct electricity even better than theory predicted
Author:  Elizabeth Gibney
Shows: 294
13.02.2014 2014 Index Shows Ukraine Gaining Economic Freedom
Ukraine’s economic freedom score is 49.3, making its economy the 155th freest in the 2014 Index of Economic Freedom, an annual publication of The Heritage Foundation and The Wall Street Journal.
Shows: 367
11.02.2014 Scientists Solve Mystery of 'Chinese Pompeii'
Famed fossils are of animals killed by a cloud of hot volcanic ash
Author:  Sid Perkins
Shows: 220
07.02.2014 Hungry Polar Bears Turn to Seabird Eggs
Climate change fingered for bears' new diet
Author:  Virginia Morell
Shows: 220
05.02.2014 Biologists make first mouse model for MERS
Mice with human receptor for coronavirus provide a faster way to test vaccines
Author:  Sara Reardon
Shows: 171
05.02.2014 What Did Corn's Ancestor Really Look Like?
Ancient plant was more useful than previously believed
Author:  Helen Fields
Shows: 157
01.02.2014 How History, Geography Help Explain Ukraine's Political Crisis
Ukraine's spreading protests are clearly tied to a modern dilemma: Should the country's allegiance lie with President Vladimir Putin's Moscow, or with the European Union? Yet a look back into its history and geography helps explain why that question is hardly new, and how the passions and upheaval of today stem from centuries of battles over Ukraine's precarious position between East and West
Author:  Eve Conant
Shows: 212
31.01.2014 Oldest Buddhist Shrine Uncovered In Nepal May Push Back the Buddha's Birth Date
Excavations uncover a shrine dating to the sixth century B.C.
Author:  Dan Vergano
Shows: 160
30.01.2014 Chemical treatment could cut cost of biofuel
Solvent easily breaks down tough plant matter into sugars without costly enzymes
Author:  Richard Van Noorden
Shows: 145
23.01.2014 How to Make Organic Chemicals From Stardust
Lab tests suggest how complex, carbon-bearing substances can form in deep space
Author:  Sid Perkins
Shows: 193
17.01.2014 How to Freeze—and Defrost—a Frog
Temporary chills prep wood frog for long winter's freeze
Author:  Elizabeth Pennisi
Shows: 171
15.01.2014 Volcanoes shift before they spew
GPS data from 2011 Icelandic eruption hint at new ways to forecast hazards
Author:  Alexandra Witze
Shows: 183
14.01.2014 Cyberwar Surprise Attacks Get a Mathematical Treatment
New model of cyberattacks could aid attackers and defenders
Author:  John Bohannon
Shows: 183
08.01.2014 From funding agencies to scientific agency: Collective allocation of science funding as an alternative to peer review
Researchers in the United States have suggested an alternative way to allocate science funding. 
Shows: 242
04.01.2014 Epigenetics enigma resolved: First structure of enzyme that removes methylation
The finding is important for the field of epigenetics because Tet enzymes chemically modify DNA, changing signposts that tell the cell's machinery "this gene is shut off" into other signs that say "ready for a change."
Shows: 187
25.12.2013 Earth’s Orbit Reshapes Sea Floor
Planet’s gyrations are recorded in ocean crust
Author:  Richard A. Kerr
Shows: 240
25.12.2013 Cell-suicide blocker holds promise as HIV therapy
Approach could complement current treatments
Author:  Heidi Ledford
Shows: 231
23.12.2013 Mima Mound Mystery Solved
Earthquakes? Aliens? Just what turns flat fields into pimply landscapes?
Author:  Richard A. Kerr
Shows: 202
20.12.2013 Shrub genome reveals secrets of flower power
Amborella sequence might help to explain why flowering plants conquered Earth
Author:  Ewen Callaway
Shows: 193
18.12.2013 Polynesian people used binary numbers 600 years ago
Base-2 system helped to simplify calculations centuries before Europeans rediscovered it
Author:  Philip Ball
Shows: 203
16.12.2013 Bolstering a Link Between Alzheimer’s Disease and Lead Exposure
Monkeys exposed to lead as infants develop protein tangles in their brains
Author:  Julia Calderone
Shows: 179
12.12.2013 Why lizards may inherit the Earth
Monitor lizards extract oxygen both when they inhale and exhale, perhaps explaining why they are so successful
Author:  Ewen Callaway
Shows: 237
11.12.2013 Dyslexia linked to brain communication breakdown
Language centres struggle to access phonetic information
Author:  Helen Shen
Shows: 181
06.12.2013 Probe spots enormous convection currents on the Sun
Slow-moving cells had been hunted for decades
Author:  Alexandra Witze
Shows: 223
05.12.2013 Humans are becoming more carnivorous
Study reveals global shift towards animal-based diet — a bad omen for the environment
Author:  Hannah Hoag
Shows: 227
05.12.2013 Fearful memories haunt mouse descendants
Genetic imprint from traumatic experiences carries through at least two generations
Author:  Ewen Callaway
Shows: 277
04.12.2013 First-Time Comet Perishes
Comet ISON broke up as it passed the sun, its remnants a fading shadow of its former glory
Author:  Richard A. Kerr
Shows: 183
28.11.2013 How the Whale Became the Whale
Minke whale genome provides clues to how cetaceans have evolved to live in their watery world
Author:  Elizabeth Pennisi
Shows: 251
28.11.2013 Moon plants
Can plants grow on the moon? NASA plans test in 2015
Author:  Nancy Owano
Shows: 242
27.11.2013 Super-material shrugs off molten metal
Textured surfaces repel liquid droplets faster than was thought possible
Author:  Elizabeth Gibney
Shows: 219
22.11.2013 Mission to map Earth's magnetic field readies for take-off
Satellite trio will unravel mysteries of planet's inner dynamo and could even find iron mines from space
Author:  Quirin Schiermeier
Shows: 223
20.11.2013 'Solar-powered' sea slugs can survive in the dark
The creatures may not rely on the photosynthetic ability of the chloroplasts that lend them their colour
Author:  Karen Ravn
Shows: 237
20.11.2013 Chilly lab mice skew cancer studies
Room-temperature conditions cause stress, suppressing immune responses
Author:  Heidi Ledford
Shows: 212
19.11.2013 Termite Architects Have Their Own Plans
Colonies vary in what type of structure they build
Author:  Molly Sharlach
Shows: 212
14.11.2013 A Window Into Your Veins
Researchers combine two techniques to better monitor blood flow and prevent obstructions
Author:  Tim Wogan
Shows: 177
12.11.2013 Why Teenagers Are So Impulsive
Scientists find something unique about the adolescent brain
Author:  Emily Underwood
Shows: 253
11.11.2013 Ozone-hole treaty slowed global warming
Montreal Protocol helped to curb climate change and so did world wars and the Great Depression
Author:  Hannah Hoag
Shows: 346
08.11.2013 High Temperatures Turn Mammals Into Dwarves
Horses and other animals have shrunk during past periods of global warming
Author:  Michael Balter
Shows: 290
07.11.2013 Stressed-Out Snails Become Forgetful
The animals lose memories when put under multiple pressures
Author:  Shannon Palus
Shows: 230
06.11.2013 Lasers might be the cure for brain diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's
The researchers discovered that it is possible to distinguish aggregations of the proteins from the the well-functioning proteins in the body by using multi-photon laser technique.
Shows: 260
06.11.2013 Space Bacteria Defy Zero Gravity
In weightlessness, some microbes thrive despite low-nutrient conditions
Author:  Sid Perkins
Shows: 201
05.11.2013 Butterfly Study Shows Genomes Change in Bits and Pieces at First
Evolution takes time to snowball
Author:  Elizabeth Pennisi
Shows: 179
01.11.2013 'Language Gene' Has a Partner
Researchers identify new player in pathway that may have given humans the gift of gab
Author:  Elizabeth Pennisi
Shows: 246
31.10.2013 Dual-action drug shows promise against diabetes
Molecule controls blood sugar effectively in humans and also promotes weight loss in rodents
Author:  Chris Woolston
Shows: 217
31.10.2013 Super-thin membranes clear the way for chip-sized pumps
Super-thin silicon membrane could make it possible to drastically shrink the power source, paving the way for diagnostic devices the size of a credit card
Shows: 164
29.10.2013 LIMP-2 structure revealed
Researchers discover a new protein fold with a transport tunnel
Shows: 250
28.10.2013 Rodent immune to scorpion venom
Mechanism for pain resistance in grasshopper mice suggests potential drug target
Author:  Sarah Zhang
Shows: 231
25.10.2013 Pesticide makes invading ants suicidally aggressive
Neonicotinoids change behaviour in ways that could affect spread of invasive species
Author:  Brian Owens
Shows: 283
23.10.2013 The Milky Way Does the Wave
Motions of stars in our galactic neighborhood are more complicated than previously recognized
Author:  Sid Perkins
Shows: 184
21.10.2013 The First False Teeth
Hard parts of ancient eel-like creatures weren’t teeth after all
Author:  Sid Perkins
Shows: 207
18.10.2013 Mammals chop up viral RNA to attack infection
Two controversial studies suggest antiviral mechanism called RNA interference may exist in vertebrates after all
Author:  Amy Maxmen
Shows: 212
16.10.2013 Glowing antibiotics reveal infections
Drug treated with special dye allows real-time imaging of bacterial growth
Author:  Sara Reardon
Shows: 219
16.10.2013 Modellers react to chemistry award
Prize proves that theorists can measure up to experimenters
Author:  Richard Van Noorden
Shows: 243
14.10.2013 Ozone loss warmed southern Africa
Antarctic ozone hole's effects may have spread much wider than thought
Author:  Hannah Hoag
Shows: 311
11.10.2013 Exotic nuclei held together by another kind of ‘magic’
Experiments show how massive nucleus gains stability
Author:  Philip Ball
Shows: 235
11.10.2013 A New Way to Grow Quasicrystals
Until Daniel Shechtman came along, chemists defined crystals as materials in which atoms are arranged in a regular pattern that repeats itself
Author:  Robert F. Service
Shows: 162
07.10.2013 Giant channels discovered beneath Antarctic ice shelf
The 250 metre high channels will help predict future of Antarctic ice
Shows: 179
04.10.2013 Want to Read Minds? Read Good Books
Literary fiction may improve our ability to interpret others' mental states
Author:  Kelly Servick
Shows: 311
03.10.2013 Amorous insects predict the weather
Changes in atmospheric pressure reduce mating in beetles, moths and aphids
Author:  Brian Owens
Shows: 198
02.10.2013 (Very) Early Bloomers
Fossilized pollen offers a new date for the first flowering plants
Author:  Kelly Servick
Shows: 243
02.10.2013 Corals, in Panoramic View
New "Global Reef Record" reveals world’s coral reefs to virtual divers
Author:  Carolyn Gramling
Shows: 282
01.10.2013 Rewired nerves control robotic leg
The power of thought alone is not enough to move inanimate objects — unless the object is a robotic leg wired to your brain, that is.
Author:  Erika Check Hayden
Shows: 216
30.09.2013 Earth's history to be rewritten
New research results provide evidence that the dating of a so-called “Great Oxygenation Event” needs a 700- million-year backwards recalibration.
Shows: 229
27.09.2013 In water as in love, likes can attract
A research team led by Berkeley Lab chemist Richard Saykally and theorist David Prendergast, working at the Advanced Light Source (ALS), has shown that, when hydrated in water, positively charged ions (cations) can actually pair up with one another
Author:  Lynn Yarris
Shows: 259
25.09.2013 Why a Water Bridge Doesn't Collapse
Mix of forces combines to hold water aloft
Author:  Jon Cartwright
Shows: 243
25.09.2013 Understanding a new kind of magnetism
Using low-frequency laser pulses, a team of researchers has carried out the first measurements that reveal the detailed characteristics of a unique kind of magnetism found in a mineral called herbertsmithite
Author:  Девід Л. Чандлер
Shows: 254
24.09.2013 Lucy's Svelte Look
Well-studied skeleton cast in new light thanks to fleshed-out fossil record
Author:  Elizabeth Culotta
Shows: 250
23.09.2013 Stem cells made with near-perfect efficiency
Elimination of single protein boosts reprogramming yield and consistency
Author:  Monya Baker
Shows: 313
19.09.2013 Bacteria and Termites Team Up
Friendly bacteria take up residence in underground nests
Author:  Helen Fields
Shows: 280
18.09.2013 Machinery of Life
Natural gears keep leafhopper legs moving like clockwork
Author:  Kelly Servick
Shows: 219
17.09.2013 Researchers discover how and where imagination occurs in human brains
Scholars theorize that human imagination requires a widespread neural network in the brain, but evidence for such a "mental workspace" has been difficult to produce with techniques that mainly study brain activity in isolation
Shows: 309
09.09.2013 Summer storms bolster Arctic ice
This year’s cyclones grant sea ice a temporary reprieve.
Author:  Lauren Morello
Shows: 458
04.09.2013 Striking Patterns: Skill for Forming Tools and Words Evolved Together
Brain imaging suggests development of toolmaking and language were linked in early humans
Author:  Michael Balter
Shows: 420
02.09.2013 Tropical ocean key to global warming ‘hiatus’
Surface cooling in equatorial Pacific drives decade-long pause in global temperature rise
Author:  Jeff Tollefson
Shows: 481
30.08.2013 Just thinking about science triggers moral behavior
Psychologists find deep connection between scientific method and morality
Author:  Piercarlo Valdesolo
Shows: 411
20.08.2013 Fungal-bacterial consortia turn corn stalks and leaves into better biofuel
A fungus and E. coli bacteria have joined forces to turn tough, waste plant material into isobutanol, a biofuel that matches gasoline's properties better than ethanol
Shows: 507
16.08.2013 Want Better Biofuels? Get the Wood Out
Scientists decrease a key component of wood, possibly paving the way for cheaper fuel
Author:  Robert F. Service
Shows: 383
16.08.2013 Meet ‘Wrinkly Tooth,’ the Earliest Rodentlike Creature
160-million-year-old animal was an agile plant shredder
Author:  Michael Balter
Shows: 311
15.08.2013 Smart glass blocks heat or light at flick of a switch
Spray-on coating is a step towards energy-efficient windows
Author:  Devin Powell
Shows: 427
06.08.2013 Arctic Warming Twice as Fast as Rest of World
For the 23rd year, researchers have compiled a “state of the climate” report—and as report cards go, it’s not a good one. 
Shows: 552
30.07.2013 Asymmetrical glycans synthesized in lab
Method uses core carbohydrate to build variations of ubiquitous but enigmatic biomolecules
Author:  Richard Johnston
Shows: 423
29.07.2013 Pilot projects bury carbon dioxide in basalt
Two experiments test viability of sequestering emissions in porous layers of hard rock
Author:  Jeff Tollefson
Shows: 389
26.07.2013 How to regrow your head
Single gene switch makes worms regenerate their whole bodies from their tails
Author:  Josh Howgego
Shows: 446
24.07.2013 Natural defences can sharply limit coastal damage
Reefs, dunes and marshes are key to protecting lives and property against storm surges and long-term sea-level rise.
Author:  Virginia Gewin
Shows: 405
19.07.2013 A Momentous Shift for Sonic Levitation
Sounds waves not only suspend tiny objects, they move them around, too
Author:  Kelly Servick
Shows: 336
18.07.2013 A GPS for Hurricanes
Satellite signals bouncing off ocean waves can help measure wind speeds in massive storms
Author:  Sid Perkins
Shows: 356
17.07.2013 Animal studies produce many false positives
Examination of neurological disease research shows pervasive ‘significance bias’
Author:  Heidi Ledford
Shows: 476
11.07.2013 Mukhanov and Starobinsky to Receive $500 000 Gruber Cosmology Prize for Developing Theory of Universe’s Earliest Moments

The 2013 Gruber Cosmology Prize recognises Viatcheslav Mukhanov and Alexei Starobinsky for their formative contributions to inflationary theory, an essential component for understanding the evolution and structure of the Universe. 

Shows: 561
10.07.2013 Can silver promote the colonization of bacteria on medical devices?
A recent study by researchers in Portugal suggests that – in one material – increasing levels of silver may indirectly promote bacterial adhesion
Shows: 350
10.07.2013 Researchers find protein essential for cognition, mental health
Researchers at Yale University School of Medicine pinpoint key molecular actions of proteins that allow the creation of mental representations necessary for higher cognition that are genetically altered in schizophrenia.
Shows: 354
09.07.2013 Your primary school language reveals if you move away or stay behind
The way you speak in primary school reveals if you will stay behind in your native part of the country or head for the big city to get an education. This is one of the conclusions in University of Copenhagen linguist Malene Monka's new PhD thesis. 
Shows: 329
07.07.2013 Bioengineers look beyond patents
Synthetic-biology company pushes open-source models.
Author:  Heidi Ledford
Shows: 369
03.07.2013 How Glowworms Maximize Their Glow
Larvae synch up for maximal brightness in caves
Author:  Nisha Giridharan
Shows: 332
01.07.2013 Corruption influences migration of skilled workers
Countries that have higher levels of corruption struggle to attract and retain skilled workers report the authors of a new study published in EMBO reports
Shows: 470
30.06.2013 Carbon Nanotube Solar Cells Can Be as Efficient as Silicon Ones
The advance could lead to solar panels just as efficient, but much less expensive to manufacture, than current panels.
Author:  Renee Meiller
Shows: 323
26.06.2013 Location may stymie wind and solar power benefits
The health and climate gains made by green energies are often lowest in the windiest or sunniest places.
Author:  Quirin Schiermeier
Shows: 450
24.06.2013 Another Way to a Clear View
Sugar marinade turns tissues see-through
Author:  Dennis Normile
Shows: 264
22.06.2013 Cheap, color, holographic video: Better holographic video displays
Yesterday in the journal Nature, researchers at MIT's Media Lab reported a new approach to generating holograms that could lead to color holographic-video displays that are much cheaper to manufacture than today's experimental, monochromatic displays.
Author:  Larry Hardesty
Shows: 450
21.06.2013 Compulsive behaviour triggered and treated
Pulses of light start and stop obsessive grooming in mice
Author:  Kerri Smith
Shows: 444
19.06.2013 Pesticides spark broad biodiversity loss
Agricultural chemicals affect invertebrates in streams and soil, even at 'safe' levels
Author:  Sharon Oosthoek
Shows: 14649
17.06.2013 Shining Light on the 'Dark Matter of Life'
Mysterious microbes found in sink scum
Author:  Beth Skwarecki
Shows: 21838
14.06.2013 Faulty energy production in brain cells leads to intellectual disability
Neuroscientist Patrik Verstreken of KU Leuven and VIB (Flanders Institute for Biotechnology) has shown for the first time that dysfunctional mitochondria in brain cells can lead to learning disabilities.
Shows: 8388
12.06.2013 Danish researchers expose new cause of life-threatening disease
Danish researchers have just published findings that explain a previously unknown mechanism used by cells to communicate with one another.
Shows: 2033
12.06.2013 Brazil reports sharp drop in greenhouse emissions
Decrease in deforestation drives the trend, but emissions from energy and agriculture grow
Author:  Jeff Tollefson
Shows: 2149
10.06.2013 Invasive Snails Protect Their Young With Odd Poison
Few predators will touch the hot pink eggs
Author:  Many kinds of snails are invading ecosystems all over the world, but the apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) has a unique advantage: Almost no predators will eat its eggs. That's because the bright pink objects (pictured) are filled with a neurotoxin that scares off every predator except for red fire ants. Now, researchers have discovered that the neurotoxin, called PcPV2, is unusual for animals. First, it's a so-called AB toxin, which is used by plants and bacteria. And second, the apple snail creates it in an unprecedented way, combining a pair of molecules that resemble those belonging to the immune system of other animals. As for the embryonic snails, cocooned in a toxic egg, they are equipped with enzymes that can degrade the neurotoxin and use it for nutrition during development, researchers reported last week in PLOS ONE. No one knows how the ants survive.
Shows: 1589
10.06.2013 Two techniques unite to provide molecular detail
Raman spectroscopy souped up with scanning tunnelling microscopy hones in on individual atoms and bonds
Author:  Mark Peplow
Shows: 1169
06.06.2013 Toy helicopter guided by power of thought
Technology to pilot aircraft with brainwaves offers promise for prosthetics
Author:  Devin Powell
Shows: 1662
05.06.2013 'Sting' Disappearing From L.A. Air
Ozone, other pollutants down in Los Angeles, thanks to rules targeting tailpipes
Author:  Sid Perkins
Shows: 1802
30.05.2013 Iron in Egyptian relics came from space
Meteorite impacts thousands of years ago may have helped to inspire ancient religion
Author:  Jo Marchant
Shows: 7581
30.05.2013 Models from big molecules captured in a flash
To learn how biological molecules like proteins function, scientists must first understand their structures. Almost as important is understanding how the structures change, as molecules in the native state do their jobs.
Author:  Paul Preuss
Shows: 7128
28.05.2013 Frozen Plants Come Back to Life After Hundreds of Years
Mosses regrow after being buried in glacial ice
Author:  Sarah C. P. Williams
Shows: 7704
28.05.2013 Minerals From Beyond
Some lunar deposits may be left over from impacting asteroids
Author:  Sid Perkins
Shows: 1046
24.05.2013 New method for producing clean hydrogen
Duke University engineers have developed a novel method for producing clean hydrogen, which could prove essential to weaning society off of fossil fuels and their environmental implications.
Shows: 2018
22.05.2013 Viruses in the gut protect from infection
Phages in mucus aid immune system by killing invading bacteria
Author:  Ed Yong
Shows: 2229
21.05.2013 Antarctic neutrino observatory detects unexplained high-energy particles
A preliminary analysis from the IceCube detector reveals more than two dozen neutrinos of unknown origin
Author:  John Matson
Shows: 2383
21.05.2013 Fungi Provide an Early Warning System for Plants
Fungus alerts plants to aphid attack
Author:  Susan Langthorp
Shows: 1604
18.05.2013 Polar wander linked to climate change
Melting ice in Greenland may have helped to shift the location of the North Pole.
Author:  Richard A. Lovett
Shows: 2060
17.05.2013 Humans are not the only copycats
Imitation drives culture development in some monkey and whale species
Author:  Karen Ravn
Shows: 1703
16.05.2013 Reservoir deep under Ontario holds billion-year-old water
Search is on for signs of microbial activity isolated in Earth's crust
Author:  Jessica Marshall
Shows: 1863
15.05.2013 The Inner Lives of Caterpillars
Scientists use high-resolution scanning technique to peer inside developing butterfly
Author:  Traci Watson
Shows: 1310
13.05.2013 Researchers makes advance in nanotech gene sequencing technique
One promising technique involves reading DNA bases using changes in electrical current as they are threaded through a nanoscopic hole.
Shows: 1719
11.05.2013 Common source for Earth and Moon water
Chemical fingerprints of lunar rocks suggest both bodies already had their water at birth
Author:  Ron Cowen
Shows: 2102
08.05.2013 Nano-scientists develop new kind of portable water purification system
Researchers at India's Institute of Technology Madras have developed a new kind of portable water purification system based on nanoparticle filtration
Author:  Bob Yirka
Shows: 2602
07.05.2013 Shhh, the Plants Are Talking
Study suggests plants may have a surprising way to communicate
Author:  Andrew Porterfield
Shows: 2225
03.05.2013 Tiny robot flies like a fly
Engineers create first device able to mimic full range of insect flight
Author:  Ron Cowen
Shows: 2729
02.05.2013 Zinc: The perfect material for bioabsorbable stents?
The arterial wall heals in around the old stent with no ill effect. But the longer a stent is in the body, the greater the risk of late-stage side effects.
Author:  Marcia Goodrich
Shows: 2361
02.05.2013 Why the tropics are an evolutionary hotbed
Ant family tree shows tropical New World hosts fast speciation while also keeping older lineages alive
Author:  Lucas Laursen
Shows: 2106
25.04.2013 Tracking whole colonies shows ants make career moves
Comprehensive tagging reveals workers switch tasks as they age
Author:  Ed Yong
Shows: 2855
23.04.2013 Radioactive Microbes Nuke Tumor Cells
Modified bacteria seek out cancer that has spread
Author:  Elizabeth Norton
Shows: 3122
23.04.2013 Egypt's King Khufu's harbour in Suez discovered
French-Egyptian archaeological mission discover the oldest commercial harbour from fourth dynasty Egyptian King Khufu at Wadi Al-Jarf area, 180 km south of Suez
Author:  Nevine El-Aref
Shows: 3282
23.04.2013 Kepler spies water worlds
Pair of exoplanets sit in habitable zone of star far beyond the Solar System
Author:  Ron Cowen
Shows: 1281
21.04.2013 Wild weather can send greenhouse gases spiralling
Researchers get to grips with effects of heat, drought and storms on carbon release
Author:  Quirin Schiermeier
Shows: 1470
10.04.2013 New centre to focus on harvest and storage of solar energy
Paint which combines the properties of both solar cells and batteries is the ultimate goal for chemist Morten Brønsted Nielsen
Shows: 4141
09.04.2013 Miniature Chip Detects Rogue Cancer Cells
Advance provides a chance to fend off late-stage cancer
Author:  Paul Gabrielsen
Shows: 4629
08.04.2013 Scientists print self-assembling 'living tissue'
Three-dimensional printer uses water and oil to create lipid networks that mimic biological feats
Author:  Beth Marie Mole
Shows: 4968
05.04.2013 Coral Reef Back From the Dead
Isolated reef surprises scientists by recovering from near devastation
Author:  Lizzie Wade
Shows: 2448
04.04.2013 Global warming expands Antarctic sea ice
In a polar paradox, melting land ice helps sea ice to grow
Author:  Olive Heffernan
Shows: 1929
03.04.2013 Fungi and roots store a surprisingly large share of the world's carbon
Symbiotic organisms that envelope tree roots may play a bigger role in carbon cycle than decomposing leaves
Author:  Sid Perkins
Shows: 1967
03.04.2013 Synthetic vaccine could prevent future outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease
Technique could be extended to human viruses and help with eradication of polio
Author:  Zoe Cormier
Shows: 1390
01.04.2013 Social media is helping workers become more productive, says professor
New research shows that the multitude of digital devices and social media actually help people work rather than hinder them
Shows: 1822
01.04.2013 A New Class of Supernova
These exploding stars are fainter, less energetic than typical supernovae
Author:  Sid Perkins
Shows: 1107
28.03.2013 Mindfulness at school reduces symptoms of depression among adolescents
Secondary school students who adhered to an in-class mindfulness programme exhibited decreased symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress both immediately after and six months after the programme.
Shows: 2223
27.03.2013 Sequencing tracks animal-to-human transmission of bacterial pathogens
Researchers have used whole genome sequencing to reveal if drug-resistant bacteria are transmitted from animals to humans in two disease outbreaks that occurred on different farms in Denmark
Author:  Barry Whyte
Shows: 1895
27.03.2013 Seven Sexes on the Menu
Random arrangement of DNA determines whether microbe will be one of seven mating types
Author:  Beth Skwarecki
Shows: 1905
26.03.2013 Sunstone Unearthed From Shipwreck
Sunken treasure reveals how ancient sailors navigated the high seas
Author:  Lizzie Wade
Shows: 1193
22.03.2013 Observations of early universe hint at a giant excess of anti-neutrinos
Recent data from cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments suggests that the universe contains an excess of anti-neutrinos compared with normal neutrinos, german physicists say
Author:  Lisa Zyga
Shows: 2075
22.03.2013 Engineered immune cells battle acute leukaemia
Modified T cells seek out and destroy blood cancer
Author:  Heidi Ledford
Shows: 1877
19.03.2013 Global temperatures are close to 11,000-year peak
Planet is set to get hotter than at any time since last ice age by end of century
Author:  Sid Perkins
Shows: 2661
15.03.2013 Lab-made supermaterial that could boost computing exists in nature too
Naturally occurring topological insulator is cleaner than synthetic samples
Author:  Zeeya Merali
Shows: 2609
13.03.2013 Cassini returns images of battered Saturn Moon
Following its last close flyby of Saturn's moon Rhea, NASA's Cassini spacecraft captured these raw, unprocessed images of the battered icy moon.
Author:  Jia-Rui C. Cook
Shows: 3152
13.03.2013 Mars rover finds evidence of ancient habitability
Curiosity discovers water-borne minerals in first drill-sample analysis
Author:  Alexandra Witze
Shows: 2371
12.03.2013 Bumblebees sense electric fields in flowers
Electroreception may help pollinators to guess where others have already fed on nectar
Author:  Matt Kaplan
Shows: 1536
09.03.2013 Toddler 'Functionally Cured' of HIV, Doctors Say
For the first time, a child born with HIV has been "functionally cured" of the infection.
Author:  Anita Li
Shows: 818
06.03.2013 Can This Surprising Discovery Fix Climate Change?
But is there a simple fix for desertification — and has it been under our noses the whole time?
Author:  Chris Taylor
Shows: 2755
01.03.2013 Stealth nanoparticles sneak past immune system’s defences
Artificial protein fragment could enable nanobeads to deliver drugs where they're needed
Author:  Katharine Sanderson
Shows: 3798
01.03.2013 'Franken-Tadpoles' See With Eyes on Their Backs
Researchers have found a way to transplant an eyeball onto a blind tadpole's spine that confers some degree of vision—the first evidence that functional sight can occur so far from the brain
Author:  Michael Price
Shows: 3826
28.02.2013 Fall of an Ancient Empire Linked to Crisis in Syria
Archaeologists draw comparisons between the fall of the Akkadian empire more than 4,000 years ago and the crises in contemporary Syri
Author:  Moheb Costandi
Shows: 2309
26.02.2013 Lost Land Beneath the Waves
The Indian Ocean and some of its islands, scientists say, may lie on top of the remains of an ancient continent pulled apart by plate tectonics between 50 million and 100 million years ago.
Author:  Tim Wogan
Shows: 1348
25.02.2013 Newt sequencing may set back efforts to regrow human limbs
Amphibian's unique proteins cast doubt on existence of latent potential for regeneration.
Author:  Zoe Cormier
Shows: 1594
22.02.2013 'Language Gene' More Active in Young Girls Than Boys
Scientists studying a gene linked to the evolution of vocalizations and language have for the first time found clear sex differences in its activity in both rodents and humans, with the gene making more of its protein in girls
Author:  Michael Balter
Shows: 2266
21.02.2013 Mussel Glue Could Help Repair Birth Defects
When it comes to hanging on tight, the lowly mussel has few rivals in nature. Researchers have sought the secrets behind the bivalve's steadfast grip on wet, slippery rock.
Author:  Dan Ferber
Shows: 2105
20.02.2013 Influential few predict behaviour of the many
Technique helps to untangle complexity in systems from metabolism to social networks
Author:  Julie Rehmeyer
Shows: 2066
19.02.2013 Do plants 'veto' bad genes?
Latest evidence fails to quell doubt about whether plants can access 'ancestral' genes outside their parents' DNA.
Author:  Heidi Ledford
Shows: 1500
15.02.2013 Self-Assembling Molecules Offer New Clues on Life's Possible Origin
RNA-like molecules assemble into genelike structures in water
Author:  Robert F. Service
Shows: 2441
15.02.2013 2013 – International Year of Water Cooperation
The objective of this International Year is to raise awareness, both on the potential for increased cooperation, and on the challenges facing water management in light of the increase in demand for water access, allocation and services.
Shows: 2576
13.02.2013 Small-molecule drug drives cancer cells to suicide
Studies in mice show therapy is effective even in hard-to-treat brain tumours.
Author:  Zoe Cormier
Shows: 1014
13.02.2013 Astronomers catch rare glimpse of a star's final moments
Massive star convulses before going supernova
Author:  Ron Cowen
Shows: 1107
11.02.2013 Women in Science Are Outnumbered and Outearned
Fewer women are entering science and technology professions, and this new infographic created for City Town Info may tell us why.
Shows: 1240
11.02.2013 Printed embryonic stem cells
Scientists 3D-print embryonic stem cells, pave the way for lab-made organ transplants
Author:  Sarah Silbert
Shows: 1220
07.02.2013 Genes mix faster than stories
Folk tales' 'DNA' shows that people would sooner have sex with strangers than tell their fables
Author:  Philip Ball
Shows: 2245
06.02.2013 How to Survive a Siberian Winter
A new study of indigenous Siberian peoples presented here earlier this month at a meeting on human evolution reveals how natural selection helped people adapt to the frigid north.
Author:  Michael Balter
Shows: 2005
06.02.2013 Neanderthal remains point to earlier extinction
New dating suggests bones from Spanish sites are 10,000 years older than previously thought
Author:  Ewen Callaway
Shows: 1897
05.02.2013 Gold-digging bacterium makes precious particles
Biochemical trick could aid in recovery of the metal from waste
Author:  Ewen Callaway
Shows: 1219
30.01.2013 Axons' unexpected cytoskeleton structure
Howard Hughes Medical Institute scientists have discovered that periodic ring-shaped actin arrangements encircle the long axonal fibers of nerve cells
Shows: 2749
29.01.2013 Scientists trick iron-eating bacteria into breathing electrons instead
Scientists have developed a way to grow iron-oxidizing bacteria using electricity instead of iron
Shows: 2660
28.01.2013 Shrunken proton baffles scientists
Researchers perplexed by conflicting measurements
Author:  Geoff Brumfiel
Shows: 1420
23.01.2013 Can You Smell Yourself?
You might not be able to pick your fingerprint out of an inky lineup, but your brain knows what you smell like.
Author:  Sarah C. P. Williams
Shows: 2287
23.01.2013 Price doesn't always buy prestige in open access
Online comparison tool reveals which journals provide the biggest bang for the buck
Author:  Zoë Corbyn
Shows: 2410
23.01.2013 Four-strand DNA structure found in cells
Unusual nucleic-acid structure may have role in regulating some genes
Author:  Alison Abbott
Shows: 1937
22.01.2013 Nations Agree on Global Mercury Limits
More than 140 nations agreed on January, 19 to a treaty to limit mercury emissions and releases.
Author:  Gretchen Vogel
Shows: 1005
22.01.2013 Leprosy bug turns adult cells into stem cells
Bacteria's mysterious skill could be model for treating other conditions.
Shows: 873
18.01.2013 Mathematicians aim to take publishers out of publishing
Episciences Project to launch series of community-run, open-access journals
Author:  Richard Van Noorden
Shows: 1870
18.01.2013 A material that most liquids won't wet
A nanoscale coating that's at least 95 percent air repels the broadest range of liquids of any material in its class, causing them to bounce off the treated surface, according to the University of Michigan engineering researchers who developed it.
Shows: 1701
17.01.2013 Soot a major contributor to climate change
Black carbon could result in twice as much global warming as previously estimated.
Author:  Jeff Tollefson
Shows: 1933
16.01.2013 Genomes link aboriginal Australians to Indians
Mingling of genes four millennia ago suggests continent was not isolated after all.
Author:  Ed Yong
Shows: 1095
15.01.2013 Safety of induced stem cells gets a boost
Fears of immune response have been overestimated
Author:  Monya Baker
Shows: 1575
11.01.2013 Flesh-eating flies map forest biodiversity
DNA in insects' guts reveals inventory of rare mammals
Author:  Ed Yong
Shows: 2225
10.01.2013 Epigenetics posited as important for evolutionary success
Environmentally modified genes could factor in the success of invasive species.
Author:  Sujata Gupta
Shows: 2408
10.01.2013 Why some corals can take the heat
Gene-expression study offers clues to how reefs will handle climate change
Author:  Marian Turner
Shows: 2317
09.01.2013 From the Amazon rainforest to human body cells: Quantifying stability
When the world's largest tropical forest suddenly starts retreating in a warming climate, energy supply blacks out, or cells turn carcinogenic, complex-systems science understands this as a transition between two stable states. These transitions are obviously unwanted.
Shows: 1403
08.01.2013 Earliest evidence of life found: 3.49 billion years ago
A group of US researchers studying some of the oldest rocks in the world in the Pilbara region of Western Australia, say they have found the oldest traces of life on Earth, dated at 3.49 billion years old.
Author:  Lin Edwards
Shows: 957
07.01.2013 Simple Physics May Limit the Size of Leaves
The narrow size range may have a simple explanation in the inner plumbing of trees, researchers say. If it's correct, the analysis would also explain why the tallest trees top out at about 100 meters.
Author:  Adrian Cho
Shows: 1525
04.01.2013 Paralyzed Woman Controls Robotic Arm With Her Thoughts
Fluid movements are best yet using brain machine interface
Author:  Greg Miller
Shows: 1594
02.01.2013 Memory molecule dethroned
Two studies refute an enzyme’s essential role in remembering and forgetting.
Author:  Ed Yong
Shows: 2042
27.12.2012 Research shows rapid warming on the West Antarctic Ice Sheet
In a discovery that raises further concerns about the future contribution of Antarctica to sea level rise, a new study finds that the western part of the ice sheet is experiencing nearly twice as much warming as previously thought.
Author:  Pam Frost Gorder
Shows: 3576
26.12.2012 Severe drought has lasting effects on Amazon
Satellite data reveal effects of climate change on tropical forests
Author:  Hannah Hoag
Shows: 3600
25.12.2012 Comb Jelly Genome Sheds Light on ... Light
Findings may provide insight to evolution of eyes in more complex creatures
Author:  Elizabeth Pennisi
Shows: 3246
24.12.2012 Photon devices could outperform ordinary computers
Experiments with light confirm the need for quantum machines
Author:  Devin Powell
Shows: 1784
18.12.2012 Relative Masses of 7-Billion-Year-Old Protons and Electrons Confirmed to Match Those of Today’s Particles
A study of a distant galaxy strongly suggests that the proton-to-electron mass ratio has remained essentially constant for at least half the age of the universe
Author:  John Matson
Shows: 2804
17.12.2012 First road map of human sex-cell development
Study marks a step towards stem-cell treatment of infertility
Author:  Study marks a step towards stem-cell treatment of infertility
Shows: 3039
14.12.2012 Common physics among black holes
What we're seeing is that once any black hole produces a jet, the same fixed fraction of energy generates the gamma-ray light we observe with Fermi and Swift
Author:  Francis Reddy
Shows: 3452
14.12.2012 Fast DNA origami opens way for nanoscale machines
Molecules can now be folded into shapes in minutes, not days
Author:  Katharine Sanderson
Shows: 2101
13.12.2012 Ancient fungi found in deep-sea mud
Discovery raises hopes that sea floor could yield previously unknown antibiotics
Author:  Richard Monastersky
Shows: 1970
11.12.2012 Arctic Report Card: Dark Times Ahead
Conditions in the Arctic are slipping rapidly from bad to worse as the pace of climate change accelerates in that region. That’s the message from an annual environmental assessment of the far North, released on Wednesday
Author:  Richard Monastersky
Shows: 1911
06.12.2012 Nanoparticle blast caught on film
Combustion could help to make minuscule matter
Author:  Eugenie Samuel Reich
Shows: 2918
05.12.2012 Sprinkled nanocubes hold light tight
Device based on scattered silver cubes could scale up light absorption for solar power
Author:  Katharine Sanderson
Shows: 2471
05.12.2012 The First Signs of Ancient Life on Mars?
Curiosity rover has detected organic matter, but it may never have been alive
Author:  Richard A. Kerr
Shows: 2141
03.12.2012 Stores of ice confirmed on Sun-scorched Mercury
MESSENGER finds evidence of pure water ice near planet's north pole
Author:  Maggie McKee
Shows: 1565
30.11.2012 New experiments challenge fundamental understanding of electromagnetism
A cornerstone of physics may require a rethink if findings at the National Institute of Standards and Technology are confirmed
Shows: 2314
29.11.2012 Self-filling water bottle takes cues from desert beetle
Biomimicry is the term given to using nature as an inspiration for sustainable technology ideas, and a young company has joined the biomimicry brigade with its prototype self filling water bottle, which mimics the Namib desert beetle. 
Author:  Nancy Owano
Shows: 1875
29.11.2012 Past 5,000 years prolific for changes to human genome
High-resolution sequencing study emphasizes importance of rare variants in disease
Author:  Nidhi Subbaraman
Shows: 1045
27.11.2012 Bioengineered Marine Algae Expands Environments Where Biofuels Can Be Produced

Biologists at UC San Diego have demonstrated for the first time that marine algae can be just as capable as fresh water algae in producing biofuels. 

Author:  Kim McDonald
Shows: 1388
27.11.2012 Life abounds in Antarctic lake sealed under ice
Lake Vida's cold brine has yielded a bounty of microbes
Author:  Quirin Schiermeier
Shows: 1344
23.11.2012 Single photon could detect quantum-scale black holes
Tabletop experiment proposed to show whether space-time is made of indivisible units
Author:  Ron Cowen
Shows: 2422
21.11.2012 It Just Smells
Olfactory equivalent of white noise has no particular scent
Author:  Sid Perkins
Shows: 740
20.11.2012 Nose cell transplant enables paralysed dogs to walk
Scientists have reversed paralysis in dogs after injecting them with cells grown from the lining of their nose
Shows: 2789
20.11.2012 How birds are used to monitor pollution
Swallows and homing pigeons do their part for environmental surveillance
Author:  Richard A. Lovett
Shows: 2780
19.11.2012 Ocean still suffering from Fukushima fallout
Continuing leaks and contaminated sediment keep radiation levels high
Author:  Geoff Brumfiel
Shows: 1761
16.11.2012 Meteorites reveal warm water existed on Mars
Hydrothermal fractures around Martian impact craters may have been a habitable environment for microbial life
Shows: 1914
14.11.2012 Self-Healing Plastic 'Skin' Points Way to New Prosthetics
Researchers in California may have designed a synthetic version of skin — a flexible, electrically conductive, self-healing polymer
Author:  Tim Wogan
Shows: 2049
14.11.2012 A better route to xylan
Researchers find new access to abundant biomass for advanced biofuels 
Author:  Lynn Yarris
Shows: 2119
09.11.2012 A Wet Way to Better Burning?
Researchers in New York state report creating a new long-lived catalyst that uses the energy in sunlight to generate hydrogen gas, a carbon-free fuel
Author:  Robert F. Service
Shows: 2493
08.11.2012 Hopes linger for Mars methane
But negative signal from the Curiosity rover raises questions about planned European mission
Author:  Eric Hand
Shows: 2395
06.11.2012 Blind mole rats may hold key to cancer
Rodents' cells commit mass suicide when overcrowded, preventing uncontrollable proliferation. 
Author:  Zoe Cormier
Shows: 1937
05.11.2012 Gene therapy: Glybera approved by European Commission
A treatment which corrects errors in a person's genetic code has been approved for commercial use in Europe for the first time
Author:  James Gallagher
Shows: 1742
04.11.2012 ORCID - Connecting Research and Researchers
ORCID is an open, non-profit, community-based effort to create and maintain a registry of unique researcher identifiers and a transparent method of linking research activities and outputs to these identifiers.
Author:  USC
Shows: 1966
01.11.2012 Family tree links all 10,000 types of birds
The most comprehensive family tree for birds yet connects all living bird species — nearly 10,000 in total — and reveals surprising new details about their origins
Author:  Eric Gershon
Shows: 2285
31.10.2012 One-third of our greenhouse gas emissions come from agriculture
Farmers advised to abandon vulnerable crops in face of climate change
Author:  Natasha Gilbert
Shows: 2307
30.10.2012 Oceans Getting Too Hot to Handle?
Up to one-third of tropical phytoplankton could be pushed out of tropical latitudes by 2100, the authors estimate.
Author:  Jane J. Lee
Shows: 1769
29.10.2012 Assembly of nano-machines mimics human muscle
For the first time, an assembly of thousands of nano-machines capable of producing a coordinated contraction movement extending up to around ten micrometers, like the movements of muscular fibers, has been synthesized by a CNRS team from the Institut Charles Sadron. 
Shows: 1780
25.10.2012 Boaz Almog "levitates" a superconductor
How can a super-thin, three-inch disk levitate something 70,000 times its own weight? 
Shows: 2451
25.10.2012 Astronomy digest: Planets of October
October was very fruitful for exoplanets: this month, astronomers announced such extraordinary events as the “super-diamond”, four-suns’ planet, compact solar system and the exoplanet next door. Here we offer our readers to make a glance on these amazing facts.
Author:  USC
Shows: 2117
24.10.2012 Magnetic nanoparticles used to control thousands of cells simultaneously
Using clusters of tiny magnetic particles about 1,000 times smaller than the width of a human hair, researchers from the UCLA Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science have shown that they can manipulate how thousands of cells divide, morph and develop finger-like extensions. 
Shows: 1243
23.10.2012 Symmetry breaking during flapping generates lift
Tiny cilia that circle the sea slug's body in three bands may flap passively and assist in movement. In this mode, the cilia are inert – unable to move themselves – and scientists don't fully understand what role they play in the sea slug's locomotion
Author:  Lisa Zyga
Shows: 1366
23.10.2012 The buzz about pesticides
Common pesticides affect bumblebee foraging
Author:  Charlotte Stoddart
Shows: 1264
20.10.2012 Vast differences in Antarctic and Arctic polar ocean microbial communities reported
An international team of scientists, including a University of Michigan graduate student, has demonstrated that a clear difference exists between the marine microbial communities in the Southern and Arctic oceans, contributing to a better understanding of the biodiversity of marine life at the poles. 
Shows: 2423
19.10.2012 ‘Arsenic-life’ bacterium prefers phosphorus after all
Transport proteins show 4,000-fold preference for phosphate over arsenate
Author:  Daniel Cressey
Shows: 1807
18.10.2012 Picking an ancient brain
Traces of an early arthropod’s neural tissue might be evidence of a long-running evolutionary arms race
Author:  Brian Switek
Shows: 2129
17.10.2012 Scientists Identify Mammal Model of Bladder Regeneration
While it is well known that starfish, zebrafish and salamanders can re-grow damaged limbs, scientists understand very little about the regenerative capabilities of mammals. Now, researchers at Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center's Institute for Regenerative Medicine report on the regenerative process that enables rats to re-grow their bladders within eight weeks.
Shows: 1601
16.10.2012 Biodegradable electronics here today, gone tomorrow
Dissolvable electronic materials could be used in medical implants and environmentally friendly gadgets
Author:  Katherine Bourzac
Shows: 1630
15.10.2012 Global biodiversity priced at $76 billion
Researchers hope estimates of conservation cost will spur government action
Author:  Daniel Cressey
Shows: 1475
12.10.2012 Physicists extend special relativity beyond the speed of light

Over the past 100 years, numerous experimental tests of special relativity have confirmed its validity. Now two physicists – James Hill and Barry Cox from the University of Adelaide in Australia – have shown that Einstein's theory of special relativity can be logically extended to allow for faster-than-light motion. 

Author:  Lisa Zyga
Shows: 2414
11.10.2012 Cows of the Cretaceous
The hadrosaurids, or duck-billed dinosaurs, were among the most successful plant-eating dinos to roam the earth. They ranged widely in North America, Europe, and Asia during the Upper Cretaceous period, about 100 million years ago to 65 million years ago. What was the secret to their success? 
Author:  Майкл Балтер
Shows: 1891
11.10.2012 Thyroid is latest success in regenerative medicine
Hormone-producing gland can be created from embryonic stem cells
Shows: 2645
10.10.2012 'Tantalizing' hints of room-temperature superconductivity
Doped graphite may superconduct at more than 100 ºC
Author:  Edwin Cartlidge
Shows: 1363
09.10.2012 Ice may lurk in shadows beyond Moon's poles
Catalogue of craters uncovers extra sites of interest for rovers
Author:  Lucas Laursen
Shows: 1243
09.10.2012 Bingo! Ancient Rushing Water on Mars
Billions of years ago, enough water flowed down from the rim of Gale crater to carry gravel to the middle of the crater floor
Author:  Richard A. Kerr
Shows: 934
08.10.2012 Animals engineered with pinpoint accuracy
More accurate genetic modification has created allergen-free cow's milk and pigs that could serve as a model for atherosclerosis
Author:  Amy Maxmen
Shows: 1241
08.10.2012 Mouse stem cells lay eggs
Lab-made oocytes produce fertile offspring
Author:  Alla Katsnelson
Shows: 1511
07.09.2012 Researchers develop technique to remotely control cockroaches

Researchers from North Carolina State University have developed a technique that uses an electronic interface to remotely control, or steer, cockroaches. 

Author:  Matt Shipman, North Carolina State University
Shows: 9920
05.09.2012 Gene therapy restores sense of smell to mice
Cilia repair rescues olfactory function, but its potential in broader disorders is unclear
Author:  Melissa Lee Phillips
Shows: 12523
04.09.2012 Species multiply as Earth heats up

Biodiversity increases with gentle warming 

Author:  Richard Lovett
Shows: 12109
04.09.2012 Hungry Monkeys Not Living Longer
A major study designed to determine whether caloric restriction works in primates suggests that it improves monkeys' health but doesn't extend their lives. 
Author:  Mitch Leslie
Shows: 2106
31.08.2012 Scaled-Down: New Nano Device Can Weigh Single Molecules
A tiny resonating beam, just 10 millionths of a meter in length, can measure the mass of a molecule or nanoparticle in real time 
Author:  John Matson
Shows: 2271
31.08.2012 Recycled dishes form telescope network
Africa refits redundant satellite dishes for radio astronomy
Author:  Linda Nordling
Shows: 2278
28.08.2012 What Time Is It on Your Circadian Clock?
A Japanese group has come up with an alternative method of determining internal body time by constructing what it calls a molecular timetable based on levels in blood samples of more than 50 metabolites.
Author:  Dennis Normile
Shows: 2848
26.08.2012 Practicing music for only few years in childhood helps improve adult brain: research
A little music training in childhood goes a long way in improving how the brain functions in adulthood when it comes to listening and the complex processing of sound, according to a new Northwestern University study
Shows: 2155
23.08.2012 Algal blooms hit South Korean rivers
Environmentalists blame dam project for outbreak
Author:  Soo Bin Park
Shows: 2681
21.08.2012 Voyager at 35: Break on through to the other side
Thirty-five years ago today, NASA's Voyager 2 spacecraft, the first Voyager spacecraft to launch, departed on a journey that would make it the only spacecraft to visit Uranus and Neptune and the longest-operating NASA spacecraft ever. 
Shows: 2615
20.08.2012 First evidence for photosynthesis in insects
Aphids may have a rudimentary sunlight-harvesting system
Author:  Kathryn Lougheed
Shows: 3085
20.08.2012 The Great Outdoors Is Good for Allergies
A new study reveals that people who grow up in more rural environments are less likely to develop allergies.
Author:  Rachel Nuwer
Shows: 2070
17.08.2012 Amino acid provides shortcut to drugs
Organocatalyst halves synthesis of prostaglandin family
Author:  Katharine Sanderson
Shows: 2216
16.08.2012 Microwave laser fulfills 60 years of promise
Physicists build first practical maser
Author:  Geoff Brumfiel
Shows: 2291
16.08.2012 Greenland melting breaks record four weeks before season's end
Melting over the Greenland ice sheet shattered the seasonal record on August 8 – a full four weeks before the close of the melting season
Shows: 2669
14.08.2012 Changing Bodies but Not Personalities

What if your entire body changed as you aged, transforming you into a completely unrecognizable creature? Would you retain the personality of your youth? A new study in frogs suggests that you would. 

Author:  Chelsea Wald
Shows: 2279
12.08.2012 Bubbles bind beetles underwater
Air pockets in bristled feet allow wet-weather walking
Author:  Daniel Cressey
Shows: 2445
10.08.2012 Researcher use robot arm to print 3D sand structures
 Researchers from the Institute for Advanced Architecture of Catalonia have built a programmable robot arm with a nozzle for a hand that allows for building structures out of sand mixed with water and binding agents, using a 3D printing technique. 
Author:  Bob Yirka
Shows: 2643
09.08.2012 Astronomers crack mystery of the 'monster stars'
Group of astronomers at the University of Bonn have a new explanation: the ultramassive stars were created from the merger of lighter stars in tight binary systems. 
Shows: 2574
08.08.2012 Extreme plasma theories put to the test
The first controlled studies of extremely hot, dense matter have overthrown the widely accepted 50-year-old model used to explain how ions influence each other’s behavior in a dense plasma. 
Shows: 2161
06.08.2012 Global warming transforming Arctic shrubs into forest
Researchers in Finland and the United Kingdom suggest that the warming Arctic climate could turn existing shrubs into trees in the coming years.
Shows: 2884
03.08.2012 Satellites watch stellar death throes
Scientists record signal as distant black hole consumes star
Author:  Geoff Brumfiel
Shows: 3022
02.08.2012 7 minutes of terror
The Curiosity rover prepares to plunge down to Mars
Author:  Eric Hand
Shows: 2964
02.08.2012 Urbanization contributed to Beijing storms
Hot air from city made rainfall heavier and more locally concentrated
Author:  Jane Qiu
Shows: 2763
31.07.2012 Plants to express human proteins

Plants are emerging as important biotechnology tools for the production of highly purified recombinant proteins. The Plastomics network dissected the process of foreign gene insertion into plants and their potential use as protein production reservoirs. 

Shows: 1952
31.07.2012 On the Same Plane

Scientists have discovered a distant solar system very much like our own, in which the orbits of all known planets lie in nearly the same plane and are aligned with the star's rotation. 

Author:  Sid Perkins
Shows: 1628
30.07.2012 Electronic sensor rivals sensitivity of human skin
Devices inspired by beetle wings could give robots a more nuanced sense of touch
Author:  Katherine Bourzac
Shows: 1817
27.07.2012 Photovoltaics from any semiconductor
A technology that would enable low-cost, high efficiency solar cells to be made from virtually any semiconductor material has been developed by researchers with the U.S. Department of Energy Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratoryand the University of California Berkeley. 
Shows: 3160
25.07.2012 Researchers devise a means to control chemical reactions in individual atoms
Researchers have developed a way to monitor and control one of the most basic chemical reactions, the meeting of two dissimilar individual atoms.
Author:  Bob Yirka
Shows: 2573
24.07.2012 An Electric Car That Actually Goes Far?
So far, lithium-air batteries have been unstable, falling apart after a few charges. Now researchers report that they've made the first stable lithium-air batteries. 
Author:  Robert F. Service
Shows: 2387
23.07.2012 Artificial jellyfish built from rat cells
Reverse-engineered life form could be used to test drugs
Author:  Ed Yong
Shows: 801
20.07.2012 How to Paint the Moon
Lunar swirls—wispy splotches of lighter surface material tens of kilometers across—were enigmatic enough when first seen from Earth. 
Author:  Richard A. Kerr
Shows: 707
20.07.2012 Stars draw atoms closer together
Previously unknown bonding mechanism predicted in magnetic fields of white dwarfs.
Author:  Zeeya Merali
Shows: 723
17.07.2012 A magnetic monster’s dual personality
A second member of a rare breed of dead, spinning star has been identified thanks to an armada of space-based X-ray telescopes, including ESA’s XMM-Newton
Author:  Press Release
Shows: 712
16.07.2012 Genes Suggest Three Groups Peopled the New World
Now the most comprehensive genetic study to date concludes that Native Americans do indeed descend from at least three groups of ancestors from Asia.
Author:  ANN GIBBONS
Shows: 3448
13.07.2012 New way to generate terahertz radiation
Ehsan Afshari has developed a new method using the familiar and inexpensive CMOS chip technology, generating power levels high enough for some medical applications. 
Author:  Bill Steele
Shows: 4258
12.07.2012 Researchers find cells that move in response to Earth's magnetic field
A team of researchers led by Michael Winklhofera of Ludwig-Maximilians-University in Munich, have discovered a way to find individual cells that respond to a magnetic field in one species of migrating fish
Author:  Bob Yirka
Shows: 4825
10.07.2012 Researchers explain how dye-based nanotubes can help harvest light’s energy
Tiny cylinders help reveal how natural-light-harvesting antennae collect light with exceptional efficiency
Author:  David L. Chandler
Shows: 2418
06.07.2012 A Shotgun for Blood Clots
Researchers have designed a clump of tiny particles that rides the current of the bloodstream, seeks out life-threatening blood clots, and obliterates them. 
Author:  Krystnell A. Storr
Shows: 2042
05.07.2012 Poof! Planet-Forming Disk Vanishes Into Thin Air
Some 460 light-years away in the constellation Centaurus, a thick disk of dust swirled around a young star named TYC 8241 2652 1, where rocky planets like our own were arising. 
Author:  Ken Croswell
Shows: 1627
04.07.2012 Nanoporous graphene could outperform best commercial water desalination techniques
In a new study, two materials scientists from MIT have shown in simulations that nanoporous graphene can filter salt from water at a rate that is 2-3 orders of magnitude faster than today’s best commercial desalination technology
Author:  Lisa Zyga
Shows: 2129
04.07.2012 World's first single atom photo

In an international scientific breakthrough, a Griffith University research team has been able to photograph the shadow of a single atom for the first time. 

Author:  Helen Wright
Shows: 1792
02.07.2012 Study finds new gene mutations that lead to enlarged brain size, cancer, autism, epilepsy
A research team led by Seattle Children's Research Institute has discovered new gene mutations associated with markedly enlarged brain size, or megalencephaly. 
Author:  MedicalXPress
Shows: 3437
30.06.2012 How sticky toepads evolved in geckos and what that means for adhesive technologies
Geckos have independently evolved their trademark sticky feet as many as 11 times, and lost them nine times, according to research published June 27 in the open access journal PLoS ONE.
Author:  Phys.org
Shows: 2742
29.06.2012 A step toward minute factories that produce medicine inside the body
Scientists are reporting an advance toward treating disease with minute capsules containing not drugs — but the DNA and other biological machinery for making the drug.
Author:  Phys.org
Shows: 2696
27.06.2012 Bringing down the cost of fuel cells: New catalyst dramatically cheaper without sacrificing performance

Engineers at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee have identified a catalyst that provides the same level of efficiency in microbial fuel cells as the currently used platinum catalyst, but at 5% of the cost

Author:  Phys.Org
Shows: 1706
26.06.2012 Eating garbage: Bacteria for bioremediation
A 150-foot-high garbage dump in Colombia, South America, may have new life as a public park.
Author:  Phys.Org
Shows: 1816
25.06.2012 “Trust” hormone oxytocin found at heart of rare genetic disorder

The hormone oxytocin plays an important role in Williams syndrome (WS), according to a study published June 12, 2012, in PLoS One. 

Author:  Phys.Org
Shows: 3007
22.06.2012 Extensive water in Mars' interior
Scientists found that the amount of water in places of the Martian mantle is vastly larger than previous estimates and is similar to that of Earth's. 
Author:  Phys.Org
Shows: 2629
21.06.2012 Rapid test uses origami technology
Complex laboratory investigations do produce reliable results, but they are not useful for point-of-care diagnostics. Biosensors based on paper are an interesting alternative. 
Author:  Phys.Org
Shows: 2665
21.06.2012 Don't Go Into the Light
The Chilean wineberry has to make a tough choice: soak up the sun and chance being eaten, or shun the light and risk starving to death. 
Author:  Krystnell A. Storr
Shows: 2054
20.06.2012 Fuel Cell Runs on Brain Power
Researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have designed an implantable glucose fuel cell that can generate electricity from the cerebrospinal fluid around the brain. 
Author:  Ross Pomeroy
Shows: 956
18.06.2012 Boron finally gets a triple bond
Compound could be useful in organic electronic materials
Author:  James Mitchell Crow
Shows: 1882
14.06.2012 Compact and flexible thermal storage
This new system can store three to four times the amount of heat that water can, so it only requires storage containers around a quarter the size of water tanks
Author:  Phys.Org
Shows: 2840
13.06.2012 Fermi telescope detects the highest-energy light from a solar flare
During a powerful solar blast on March 7, NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope detected the highest-energy light ever associated with an eruption on the sun. 
Author:  Francis Reddy
Shows: 2963
12.06.2012 The basic building blocks of life to be rethought after one discovered to be missing
A gene thought previously to be present in all life on earth has been found to be missing in life near volcanoes.
Author:  Phys.Org
Shows: 2941
11.06.2012 Fuel cells operating directly on ethanol
Researchers at the Center for Energy Research at UC San Diego recently demonstrated the best performance for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) operating directly on ethanol without external reformation. 
Author:  Nguyen Minh
Shows: 2088
08.06.2012 Fruitfly development, cell by cell

Multidirectional imaging of embryos allows researchers to track development of fruitflies in real time. 

Author:  Lauren Gravitz
Shows: 2801
07.06.2012 Nanocones could be key to making inexpensive solar cells
One of the biggest challenges facing the silicon photovoltaic industry is making solar cells that are economically viable. 
Author:  Lisa Zyga
Shows: 2383
07.06.2012 New nano-research leads to sensors that detect contaminants in water

Many organic contaminants in the air and in drinking water need to be detected at very low-level concentrations. Research published by the laboratory of Prashant V. Kamat could be beneficial in detecting those contaminants. 

Author:  Phys.Org
Shows: 1944
06.06.2012 Friction almost vanishes in microscale graphite
In the phenomenon of superlubricity, two solid surfaces can slide past each other with almost no friction. The effect occurs when the solid surfaces have crystalline structures and their lattices are rotated in such a way as to cancel out the friction force. 
Author:  Lisa Zyga
Shows: 2004
05.06.2012 Hide-and-Seek Goes Virtual
The researchers were surprised to discover that people tend not to search in places where they might normally hide something, findings that could lead to better ways to suss out where terrorists and criminals have hidden bombs or contraband.
Author:  Charles Q. Choi
Shows: 836
03.06.2012 Diamond Jubilee celebrated with creation of world’s smallest diamond coin
Scientists at the University of Glasgow have created an unusual tribute to Her Majesty the Queen to mark her Diamond Jubilee – the world’s smallest commemorative coin, made from a tiny sliver of diamond
Author:  Press Release
Shows: 2225
01.06.2012 A new way to discover pulsars
A team led by postdoctoral researcher Matthew Kerr of the Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology (KIPAC), and Columbia University radio astronomer Fernando Camilo is reporting the use of new techniques for hunting pulsars.
Author:  David Reffkin
Shows: 3114
01.06.2012 Hubble Sees A Spiral Within a Spiral
One interesting feature of this galaxy is that its spiral arms wind all the way into the center, so that ESO 498-G5's core looks like a bit like a miniature spiral galaxy.
Author:  ESA/Hubble & NASA
Shows: 3027
01.06.2012 Making microscopic machines using metallic glass
Researchers in Ireland have developed a new technology using materials called bulk metallic glasses to produce high-precision molds for making tiny plastic components.
Author:  Elsevier
Shows: 1992
25.05.2012 Learning and memory : the role of neo-neurons revealed

Researchers at the Institut Pasteur and the CNRS have recently identified in mice the role played by neo-neurons formed in the adult brain.

Author:  Press Release
Shows: 2267
25.05.2012 Why great ideas come when you aren’t trying
History is rich with 'eureka' moments: scientists from Archimedes to Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein are said to have had flashes of inspiration while thinking about other things. But the mechanisms behind this psychological phenomenon have remained unclear. 
Author:  Matt Kaplan
Shows: 2073
17.05.2012 Mind-controlled robot arms show promise
People with tetraplegia use their thoughts to control robotic aids
Author:  Alison Abbott
Shows: 2760
17.05.2012 Scientists create first solar cell with over 100 percent quantum efficiency
Researchers over at the National Renewable Energy Lab have reportedly made the first solar cell with an external quantum efficiency over 100 percent
Author:  James Trew
Shows: 1619
16.05.2012 Electronics Go Viral
A team of researchers has harnessed bacteria-infecting viruses to generate power by converting mechanical energy into electricity. 
Author:  Robert F. Service
Shows: 966
16.05.2012 Chinese group breaks distance record for teleporting qubits
Chinese team used a 1.3-watt laser and some optic tricks to cause a pair of entangled photons to appear at two separate locations at the same time, and then used a classical channel to measure the results.
Shows: 1433
15.05.2012 Plant Enzyme’s Origins Traced to Non-Enzyme Ancestors
In a paper published online May 13, 2012, in the journal Nature, the researchers lay out evidence for how that enzyme evolved from its non-catalytic ancestor proteins.
Author:  HHMI
Shows: 1208
14.05.2012 Stone-Throwing Chimp Is Back -- And This Time It's Personal
The chimp's preparation suggests that apes can plan for future mental states--in this case anger--a cognitive talent once thought to be unique to humans
Author:  Michael Balter
Shows: 952
12.05.2012 New nanostructure for batteries keeps going and going
A team led by materials scientist Yi Cui of Stanford and SLAC has found a solution: a cleverly designed double-walled nanostructure that lasts more than 6,000 cycles, far more than needed by electric vehicles or mobile electronics
Author:  Mike Ross
Shows: 1010
11.05.2012 Century-long protein hunt ends with chance discovery on bone biology
Hundreds of kinases have been discovered and characterized, but the kinase that phosphorylates casein was never pinned down—until now
Author:  MedicalXPress
Shows: 913
10.05.2012 Bacterial builders on site for computer construction

Forget computer viruses - magnet-making bacteria could be used to build tomorrow’s computers with larger hard drives and speedier connections. 

Author:  phys.org
Shows: 1071
10.05.2012 Paper stirs up controversy over the nature of the quantum wave function
British physicists contend that the wave function is not just a tool that can be used for statistical purposes, but can measure actual real things. 
Author:  Bob Yirka
Shows: 957
08.05.2012 Researchers develop rapid test strips for bacterial contamination in swimming water
Urban beach closures due to coliform outbreaks have become disturbing signs of summer, yet water-testing technology has never been fast enough to keep up with changing conditions, nor accessible enough to check all waters.
Author:  phys.org
Shows: 1041
26.04.2012 Brain Implants Help Paralyzed Monkeys Get a Grip
By implanting electrodes in a movement control center in the brain and wiring them up to electrodes attached to muscles in the arm, researchers restored movement to monkeys with a temporarily paralyzed hand
Author:  Greg Miller
Shows: 1406
25.04.2012 NASA showcases method to grow algae-based biofuels
NASA recently showcased the latest research and technology development a method to grow algae, clean wastewater, capture carbon dioxide and ultimately produce feedstock for refining biofuels without competing with agriculture for water, fertilizer, or land.
Author:  Huong Nguyen
Shows: 1635
24.04.2012 Research team uses nanoparticles to make paper waterproof and magnetic
Researchers at the Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia in Genoa, led by Roberto Cingolani, have devised a means for connecting cellulose fibers in ordinary paper with nanoparticles resulting in new desired properties, such as paper that is waterproof and magnetic, florescent or averse to bacteria. 
Author:  Bob Yirka
Shows: 1115
19.04.2012 Opioid receptors revealed
Two more structures join the parade of once-intractable proteins
Author:  Lizzie Buchen
Shows: 1195
02.04.2012 Million-year-old ash hints at origins of cooking

Ash found in a South African cave hints that humans were cooking with fire one million years ago. The discovery is the earliest evidence yet found for use of this revolutionary technology, say the researchers behind the finding. But some experts caution that more proof is needed before we conclude that humans were cooking regularly at this date.

Author:  Matt Kaplan
Shows: 982
27.03.2012 TARA OCEANS completes 60 000-mile journey to map marine biodiversity

HEIDELBERG, 27 March 2012 – The two-and-a-half-year TARA OCEANS expedition finishes on 31 March when the ship and crew reach Lorient, France. The arrival completes a journey of 60 000 miles across all the world’s major oceans to sample and investigate microorganisms in the largest ecosystem on the planet, reports Eric Karsenti in an editorial published today in Molecular Systems Biology

Author:  Press release
Shows: 2084
13.03.2012 Towards Efficient use of water resources in Europe
The report 'Towards Efficient use of water resources in Europe' from the European Environment Agency (EEA) makes the case for an integrated water management
Author:  EEA
Shows: 6033
09.03.2012 European Union invests in flying cars
Through a project named myCopter, the European Union is investing €4.2 million to research the potential of Personal Aerial Vehicles (PAVs) for Europe’s most crowded cities
Author:  Ami Cholia
Shows: 6997
03.03.2012 Egg-making stem cells found in adult ovaries
Discovery could pave the way for new fertility treatments and a longer reproductive life
Author:  Kendall Powell
Shows: 7406
01.03.2012 Ants recall nearby rivals by their stink
Weaver ants share a collective memory for the odor of ants in rival nests, and use that information to identify them and compete
Author:  Nerissa Hannink
Shows: 4118
29.02.2012 With hybrid genes, grapevines beat blight
With a hybrid gene, grapevines can better defend themselves against Pierce’s disease, which threatens California’s wine industry
Author:  Pat Bailey
Shows: 2733
29.02.2012 Despite birth and death, flocks keep going
A new equation explains how flocks—from large animals to molecules—keep going despite individual births and deaths
Author:  Jim Barlow
Shows: 1068
28.02.2012 Souped-up cyclotrons offer isotope remedy
Canada's Chalk River nuclear research reactor is one of the world's main sources of medical isotopes, but is scheduled to be shut down in 2016
Author:  Nicola Jones
Shows: 1010
27.02.2012 Wild flower blooms again after 30,000 years on ice
Fruits hoarded by ancient ground squirrels give new life to prehistoric plants 
Author:  Sharon Levy
Shows: 1058
24.02.2012 The human Y chromosome is here to stay
The male sex-determining chromosome has lost only one gene in 25 million years
Author:  Ewen Callaway
Shows: 1558
24.02.2012 Limbless amphibian family discovered in India
Soil-dwelling species can grow to more than a metre long
Author:  Daniel Cressey
Shows: 1731
23.02.2012 Superconductor breaks high-temperature record
Iron-based crystal regains conducting properties under pressure
Author:  Zeeya Merali
Shows: 1287
22.02.2012 Signs of autism seen in brain at 6 months
A new study has discovered significant differences in brain development between infants who go on to develop autism and those who do not
Author:  Tom Hughes
Shows: 1084
21.02.2012 NASA Completes Publication of Boris Chertok's Rockets and People Memoir Series
NASA's History Program Office has released the fourth volume of the English translation of Russian space pioneer Boris Chertok's highly acclaimed memoirs, Rockets and People: The Moon Race
Author:  NASA
Shows: 841
20.02.2012 Seawater is risky coolant for nuclear fuel
Using seawater to cool nuclear fuel was the best choice for post-tsunami Japan, but the method could be risky
Author:  Andy Fell
Shows: 863
20.02.2012 Cellular aging increases risk of heart attack and early death
Researchers have long speculated that the shortening of telomeres increases the risk of heart attack and early death
Author:  University of Copenhagen
Shows: 854
17.02.2012 Meet 'Amasia,' the Next Supercontinent
Over the next few hundred million years, the Arctic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea will disappear, and Asia will crash into the Americas forming a supercontinent that will stretch across much of the Northern Hemisphere
Author:  Sid Perkins
Shows: 1110
16.02.2012 First Neanderthal cave paintings discovered in Spain
Cave paintings in Malaga, Spain, could be the oldest yet found – and the first to have been created by Neanderthals
Author:  Fergal MacErlean
Shows: 1945
15.02.2012 Mystery of Zebra's Stripes Finally Solved?
A new study finds that zebra stripes disrupt light patterns that tsetse flies and horseflies use to find food and water
Author:  Jane J. Lee
Shows: 1108
15.02.2012 Short News: Is Venus Slowing Down and The Physics of Ponytails
Venus according to new data is getting slower and a new equation helps explain why some ponytails form long, thin manes, while others fan out into a cone
Author:  Science
Shows: 1178
14.02.2012 Humans implicated in Africa's deforestation
Climate change alone cannot explain abrupt loss of rainforest 3,000 years ago, study suggests 
Author:  Katherine Rowland
Shows: 1297
14.02.2012 30-foot prehistoric crocodile wore head ‘shield’
A researcher has identified a new species of prehistoric crocodile nicknamed “Shieldcroc” due to a thick-skinned shield on its head
Author:  Christian Basi
Shows: 1113
13.02.2012 Higgs signal gains strength
Latest analyses from the Large Hadron Collider boosts case for particle 
Author:  Geoff Brumfiel
Shows: 770
13.02.2012 Glaciers shed billions of tons, satellites show
Ice caps and glaciers outside the regions of Greenland and Antarctica are shedding roughly 150 billion tons of ice annually
Author:  Jim Scott
Shows: 1716
10.02.2012 Ocean sensors gauge pH on global scale
A team of researchers has reported results from the broadest worldwide study of ocean acidification—or pH level—to date
Author:  Gail Gallessich
Shows: 2416
09.02.2012 Plant enzyme works day and night shifts
Researchers have discovered a plant enzyme that switches from storing energy during the day to transporting energy in the roots at night
Author:  Layne Cameron
Shows: 877
09.02.2012 The great Arctic oil race begins
Conservationists fear spills in icy waters as Norway awards oil-production licences
Author:  Quirin Schiermeier
Shows: 1011
08.02.2012 Russia Explores New Phobos-Grunt Mission to Mars
Russian space scientists this week floated the idea of building a new version of the Phobos-Grunt sample return spacecraft after the first model failed to escape Earth orbit and crashed in the Pacific on 15 January
Author:  Daniel Clery
Shows: 952
07.02.2012 Did You Know That Earth Is Getting Lighter Every Day?
Earth is getting 50,000 tonnes lighter every year, even while 40,000 tonnes of space dust fall on our planet's surface during the same period. So, why are we losing so much weight? You will be surprised
Author:  Jesus Diaz
Shows: 961
07.02.2012 Questions hang over red-wine chemical
How resveratrol benefits health a matter of debate 
Author:  Ewen Callaway
Shows: 856
06.02.2012 Piecing together a genetic puzzle
The results help piece together a puzzle on the biological processes of genes and cells, and in particular on cell division
Author:  CORDIS
Shows: 968
06.02.2012 Vega rocket aims to make space research affordable
The European Space Agency's light launcher is set to lift off 
Author:  Nicola Nosengo
Shows: 1051
03.02.2012 Study measures mammalian growth spurt
It takes 24 million generations for mouse-sized mammals to evolve into elephants — but shrinking back is much faster 
Author:  Brian Switek
Shows: 1402
03.02.2012 A shaky future for Hispaniola
2010 Haiti quake may portend increased seismic activity in comin decades 
Author:  Sid Perkins
Shows: 840
02.02.2012 To Russia, With Love
Stephen J. O'Brien, has left the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Laboratory of Genomic Diversity after 25 years as its head to help jump-start genome bioinformatics at St. Petersburg University in Russia
Author:  Elizabeth Pennisi
Shows: 800
01.02.2012 Metal Puts a Crimp in Deadly Bacterial Toxin
Researchers now report that doses of the metal manganese neutralize the poison, possibly leading to the first treatment that halts its insidious effects
Author:  Mitch Leslie
Shows: 960
31.01.2012 Prion diseases hide out in the spleen
UK population could harbour thousands of silent infections
Author:  Jo Marchant
Shows: 2023
27.01.2012 Mission Possible: Graphene
Winners of the Cyberscreen Science Film Festival at Science Online 2012
Author:  Bora Zivkovic
Shows: 818
27.01.2012 Victory for crowdsourced biomolecule design
Players of the online game Foldit guide researchers to a better enzymePlayers of the online game Foldit guide researchers to a better enzyme
Author:  Jessica Marshall
Shows: 712
26.01.2012 Leap second granted extra time
Clocks around the world are routinely adjusted to keep them ticking in synchrony with the rising and setting of the Sun – but is that effort just a waste of time?
Author:  Zeeya Merali
Shows: 714
25.01.2012 Cosmic race ends in a tie
The result, if it stands up to scrutiny, would tighten the limits, suggested by some theories, on how ‘lumpy’ space-time can be
Author:  Ron Cowen
Shows: 851
24.01.2012 Dung beetles get down to walk the line
The meticulous insects pirouette atop their dung balls to get their bearings and correct navigational errors
Author:  Ferris Jabr
Shows: 1387
24.01.2012 Death of a Comet Captured for First Time
By stringing together SDO images scientists for the first time directly witnessed the death of a comet as it unfolded
Author:  Sid Perkins
Shows: 804
23.01.2012 Life-long intelligence in the genes
Study tracks cognitive stability from childhood to old age and reveals extent of genetic influence  
Author:  Heidi Ledford
Shows: 828
20.01.2012 A Guide to the Dark Side
Astronomers have made the largest map yet of dark matter in the universe
Author:  Govert Schilling
Shows: 759
19.01.2012 Fruitfly genome mapped in three dimensions
The highest-resolution map of chromosome interactions in metazoans so far marks a new era of ‘3D genetics’
Author:  Rebecca Hill
Shows: 924
18.01.2012 By stopping misfolds, genes keep us healthy
Researchers have identified a set of genes that prevent protein misfolding, a condition linked to a range of disorders, including Alzheimer’s and cancer
Author:  Megan Fellman
Shows: 969
17.01.2012 Minnows may inherit ideal temperatures
Fish can be preconditioned to grow fastest in the same water temperature their parents experienced, say researchers
Author:  Jacob Levich
Shows: 807
17.01.2012 Gas-hydrate tests to begin in Alaska
US team will pump waste carbon dioxide into natural-gas well to extract methane
Author:  Nicola Jones
Shows: 958
16.01.2012 ‘Time cloak’ makes event vanish
Researchers have demonstrated a “temporal cloak”—albeit on a very small scale—in the transport of information by a beam of light
Author:  Bill Steele
Shows: 788
13.01.2012 Chemical in cosmetics stalls tadpole brain
Even very low concentrations of a chemical commonly used in cosmetics hinders brain development in tadpoles, new research shows
Author:  David Orenstein
Shows: 1532
12.01.2012 News in brief
Brazilian stingless bee, supermassive black hole and why so many monkey faces?
Author:  Science
Shows: 1105
11.01.2012 Chromosome Caps Predict Life Span in Birds
The birds with the longest telomeres—the protective caps at the ends of chromosomes—live the longest, according to a new study
Author:  Kai Kupferschmidt
Shows: 1069
10.01.2012 Octopuses rewrite their RNA to beat the cold
An octopus dwelling in the frigid waters of the Antarctic doesn't wear gloves on its tentacles, but it has found another way to endure the cold
Author:  Mitch Leslie
Shows: 1022
09.01.2012 Some of week’s images
We've seen how much wild cats love the iPad, but now the great apes are getting in on the fun as well. And others
Author:  PopSci
Shows: 1187
29.12.2011 Hydrogel heals third-degree burns
A new jelly-like material appears to promote the repair of severe burns, regenerating healthy, scar-free tissue in early experiments with animals
Author:  Mary Spiro
Shows: 1404
28.12.2011 Pigeons Ace a Simple Math Test
Pigeons can learn abstract numerical rules, a skill that scientists had believed only primates possessed
Author:  Virginia Morell
Shows: 1241
27.12.2011 365 days: Images of the year
Flying rhinos and furious rats vie with graphene knots and space technology in 2011’s most striking pictures
Author:  Daniel Cressey
Shows: 2008
27.12.2011 A wake-up call for dormant genes
The silenced copy of a gene could be reactivated to treat the neurodevelopmental disorder Angelman syndrome
Author:  Rebecca Hill
Shows: 1560
26.12.2011 How bacteria break a magnet
A magnetosensing bacterium bends its internal magnet to weaken it before cell division
Author:  Ewen Callaway
Shows: 1808
21.12.2011 Video animation: RNA interference
This animation introduces the principles of RNAi involving small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) 
Author:  Nature
Shows: 949
21.12.2011 Detectors home in on Higgs boson
Hunt gathers momentum as range narrows and hints of a possible signal emerge
Author:  Eugenie Samuel Reich
Shows: 999
20.12.2011 Why Tuberculosis Is So Hard to Cure
When microbes divide, you usually get more of the same: A cell splits up and creates two identical copies of itself. But a new study shows that's not true for mycobacteria, which cause tuberculosis (TB) in humans—and that may explain why the disease is so difficult to treat
Author:  Kai Kupferschmidt
Shows: 1031
19.12.2011 Shipping timetables debunk Darwin plagiarism accusations
Evidence challenges claims that Charles Darwin stole ideas from Alfred Russel Wallace 
Author:  Philip Ball
Shows: 964
15.12.2011 Record-breaking black holes fill a cosmic gap
Largest black holes ever discovered shed light on the early Universe.
Author:  Ron Cowen
Shows: 1286
14.12.2011 Standing Tall to Beat the Heat?
Stand upright, cool off. That's long been touted as one of the benefits of our ancestors becoming bipedal in a hot and sunny world
Author:  Traci Watson
Shows: 778
13.12.2011 Don't Worry, Little Planet
How often do stars eat their young? Almost never, according to a paper submitted to The Astrophysical Journal
Author:  Bruce Dorminey
Shows: 915
13.12.2011 Lasers track nanotubes in living cells
A new imaging tool that tracks carbon nanotubes in living cells and the bloodstream could advance their use for biomedical research and clinical medicine
Author:  Emil Venere
Shows: 942
12.12.2011 First ancient proteome revealed
Mammoth femur yields 126 prehistoric proteins 
Author:  Jo Marchant
Shows: 942
09.12.2011 Eggs have own biological clock
Aging mechanisms in worms’ reproductive cells differ compared with rest of body 
Author:  Tina Hesman Saey
Shows: 1061
08.12.2011 Entangled diamonds vibrate together
Objects big enough for the eye to see have been placed in a weirdly connected quantum state 
Author:  Philip Ball
Shows: 1238
07.12.2011 Yeti crab grows its own food
Deep-sea species farms bacteria on its own claws
Author:  Ed Yong
Shows: 1103
06.12.2011 Voyagers detect birth pains of stars
Ageing spacecraft confirm that Lyman-alpha radiation comes from stellar nurseries in the Milky Way 
Author:  Richard A. Lovett
Shows: 897
06.12.2011 Short Chromosomes Linked to Fatigue in Elderly
Short of breath? Short chromosomes may be to blame. A new study of elderly twins finds that those with longer DNA than their siblings retained more strength and physical endurance past age 70
Author:  Helen Shen
Shows: 721
05.12.2011 Physicists set limit on dark matter mass
Physicists studied the seven dwarf galaxies circled in white here, in a view of the universe from NASA's Fermi gamma-ray space telescope
Author:  Richard Lewis
Shows: 937
02.12.2011 Walk-Through-Wall Effect Might Be Possible With Humanmade Object, Physicists Predict
If successful, the experiment would be a striking advance toward fashioning mechanical systems that behave quantum mechanically
Author:  Nathan Collins
Shows: 981
02.12.2011 In Yakutia well-preserved baby mammoth was found
In Yakutia, were found the remains of the mammoth-teen. The finding is a very interesting for researchers of all areas, because not only preserved skin and bones, and muscles, but some internal organs
Author:  COPAH.info
Shows: 1702
01.12.2011 How Sharks Go Fast
Researchers have discovered what makes the shark almost impossible to outswim
Author:  Elizabeth Pennisi
Shows: 1581
30.11.2011 Ancient Egyptian chariot trappings rediscovered
Forgotten drawers in Egyptian museum yield 'astonishing' leather find
Author:  Jo Marchant
Shows: 1677
29.11.2011 Unraveling synesthesia
A sense-mixing condition in which people taste colors or see smells tends to run in families, and recent studies have homed in on a selection of genes that may contribute to the phenomenon
Author:  Nick Bascom
Shows: 1360
28.11.2011 Transplanted Neurons Curb Obesity
Immature neurons transplanted into the brains of obesity-prone mice can prevent the animals from becoming so fat
Author:  Greg Miller
Shows: 1378
25.11.2011 Host neurons obey transplants
Neurons derived from human embryonic stem cells can control native neurons in mice. Transplanted human neurons, derived from embryonic stem cells, can integrate with a network of mouse neurons in culture and the mouse brain.
Author:  Charlotte Schubert
Shows: 1509
24.11.2011 Study of Flower Petals Shows Evolution at the Cellular Level
A new study of flower petals shows evolution in action, and contradicts more that 60 years of scientific thought. The findings are reported by a scientist from UC Santa Barbara and a research team from Harvard University in the Proceedings of the Royal Society B this week
Author:  Press release
Shows: 1173
23.11.2011 Light switched on and off with few photons
The passage of a light beam through an optical fiber can be controlled by just a few photons of another light beam, new research demonstrates
Author:  Bill Steele
Shows: 1616
22.11.2011 2M nanorods crammed into cancer cell
Chemists have found a way to load more than 2 million tiny gold particles called nanorods into a single cancer cell. The breakthrough could speed development of cancer treatments that would use nanorods like tiny heating elements to cook tumors from the inside
Author:  Jade Boyd
Shows: 954
21.11.2011 ‘Blue blooded’ deer will be breed in Uzhorod
Uzhgorod will breed red deer. Local mass media reportув that the program is mainly aimed at increasing the animal population and their trophy characteristics, organizing hunting events with taking into consideration ecological-economic and social peculiarities, developing hunting tourism, preserving biological variety of wild hunting fauna of Zakarpattia region
Author:  UkraineCityGuide
Shows: 797
21.11.2011 Millipede of the Seas
What has at least 25 pairs of legs and can turn on a dime? That's a question researchers have been asking themselves ever since they uncovered a strange set of footprints in the Burgess Shale
Author:  Traci Watson
Shows: 794
18.11.2011 Leonardo's Formula Explains Why Trees Don't Splinter
The graceful taper of a tree trunk into branches, boughs, and twigs is so familiar that few people notice what Leonardo da Vinci observed: A tree almost always grows so that the total thickness of the branches at a particular height is equal to the thickness of the trunk. Until now, no one has been able to explain why trees obey this rule. But a new study may have the answer
Author:  Kim Krieger
Shows: 1080
17.11.2011 Superconductor may hide long-sought secret
A new kind of superconductor can’t make up its mind about how to conduct electricity. Current passes through its interior without any resistance, as in a typical superconductor. But its skin behaves like a metal, conducting electricity but with some resistance
Author:  Devin Powell
Shows: 923
16.11.2011 ‘Computational pathologist’ diagnoses different grades of breast cancer
A computer program has been trained to grade breast cancer, predicting which tumours are associated with worse outcomes and, therefore, deserve more aggressive treatment
Shows: 1181
15.11.2011 Tyrannosaurs were power-walkers
The image of a Tyrannosaurus rex racing after a jeep in the 1993 film Jurassic Park inspired a generation's ideas about the extinct predator, but for decades studies have concluded that dinosaurs could not move quickly
Author:  Matt Kaplan
Shows: 1222
14.11.2011 Sickle-cell mystery solved
Researchers discover how carriers of the sickle-cell anaemia gene are protected from malaria
Author:  Meredith Wadman
Shows: 1104
11.11.2011 Fundamental Constant May Depend on Where in the Universe You Are
A fundamental physical constant akin to the charge of the electron or the speed of light may depend on where in the universe you are, a team of astronomers reported. If true, that observation would overturn scientists' basic assumption that the laws of physics are the same everywhere in the universe. Other researchers are skeptical, however
Author:  Kate McAlpine
Shows: 1078
10.11.2011 First brain image of a dream created
The contents of a person’s dream have been revealed by brain scan for the first time, scientists report in the Nov. 8 Current Biology. By monitoring the brain of a man who has unusual control over his dreaming, the accomplishment brings researchers closer to understanding how the brain spins its nightly yarns
Author:  Laura Sanders
Shows: 983
09.11.2011 Tooth stranger than fiction
Крихітний, але здавалося б, лютий представник нині вимерлої групи ссавців клади Dryolestoids існував за часів динозаврів ще 100 мільйонів років тому. Палеонтологи нещодавно познаходили рідкісні черепа та інші кістки цих істот в Аргентині
Author:  Alexandra Witze
Shows: 857
08.11.2011 The origin of orbs
Spiders responsible for the majestic feats of architecture called orb webs may have evolutionarily diverged from a single weaver. Though modern-day spiders spin silken snares of many different shapes and sizes, arachnids belonging to the Orbiculariae taxon can most likely trace their ancestry to a web designer of the prehistoric kind
Author:  Nick Bascom
Shows: 1187
07.11.2011 The Viking Sunstone Revealed?
The Norse sagas mention a mysterious "sunstone" used for navigation. Now a team of scientists claims that the sunstones could have been calcite crystals and that Vikings could have used them to get highly accurate compass readings even when the sun was hidden
Author:  John Bohannon
Shows: 1021
07.11.2011 Jumping Rope by the Numbers
The problem is not the child's play that it might seem. Ever since the 1940s, physicists have described the movement of slender structures through fluids—such as a jump rope through air—as a flat plane whose speed is limited by drag. But it was not known how jump rope bends in the wind
Author:  John Bohannon
Shows: 1163
04.11.2011 Nanoparticle solar cells make light work
A type of solar cell first discovered 20 years ago could finally become commercially viable thanks to improvements reported in Science. This alternative design could lead to cheap, printable cells that would massively boost the worldwide use of solar power
Author:  Philip Ball
Shows: 1131
03.11.2011 Modern Humans' First European Tour
Our species, born in Africa, trekked to the limits of Western Europe by at least 41,000 years ago—and so shared the continent with Neandertals for thousands of years, according to two new studies published online in Nature
Author:  Ann Gibbons
Shows: 920
03.11.2011 Rice seed yields blood protein
In a study published online in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, researchers describe rice seeds that can produce substantial quantities of a blood protein called human serum albumin, or HSA
Author:  Lauren Gravitz
Shows: 1237
02.11.2011 Culprit behind bat scourge confirmed
Researchers have confirmed that a recently identified fungus is responsible for white-nose syndrome, a deadly disease that is sweeping through bat colonies in eastern North America
Author:  Susan Young
Shows: 982
01.11.2011 More clues in the genetics of schizophrenia
Two of the largest studies yet carried out on the genetics of schizophrenia in Chinese populations have turned up three genetic loci, or chromosomal regions, previously not known to be related to the disease
Author:  David Cyranoski
Shows: 1061
31.10.2011 Organ engineering: possibilities and challenges ahead
The STAM paper describes potential materials for the in vitro assembly of cells and vesicles. Examples include the use of thermoresponsive polymer-grafted surfaces—such as poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)—for the generation of cell sheets made of cardiac myocytes, hepatocytes, or periodontal ligament cells 
Author:  Asia Research News
Shows: 1386
31.10.2011 Early hunters: Pre-Clovis weapon found in US
The tip of a bone point fragment found embedded in a mastodon rib from an archaeological site in Washington state shows that hunters were present in North America at least 800 years before Clovis
Author:  Keith Randall
Shows: 939
28.10.2011 Embryo - when (and where) arms, legs grow
Biologists have identified a protein that plays a critical role in how early embryos develop, ensuring arms and legs grow in the right place at the right time
Author:  James Devitt
Shows: 881
27.10.2011 No worries: Nanoparticles are nothing new
Nanoparticles—long thought to be potentially hazardous to human health—have in reality been forming naturally for as long as humans have used silver, copper, and other metals for tools and jewelry
Author:  Jim Barlow
Shows: 881
27.10.2011 The Sun'll Come Out Tomorrow? Maybe Not
The worst mass extinction of all time did far more than nearly denude the planet of life. This vast catastrophe—probably triggered about 252 million years ago by massive eruptions of the Siberian Traps volcanoes—destabilized life on Earth so drastically, according to a new study, that ecological aftershocks continued to hinder the recovery of life on land for millions of years
Author:  Brian Switek
Shows: 1150
26.10.2011 Internet responsible for 2 per cent of global energy usage
How much energy does the internet use? It's hard to know where to start. There's the electricity consumed by the world's laptops, desktops and smart phones. Servers, routers and other networking equipment suck up more power. The energy required to manufacture these machines also needs to be included. Yet no one knows how many internet-enabled devices are out there, nor how long they are used before being replaced
Author:  Jim Giles
Shows: 907
26.10.2011 Brazilian scientists fight for cut of oil royalties
Last week, as Brazil celebrated its 8th annual National Week of Science and Technology, the country's government dampened scientists' hopes for a guaranteed cut of oil royalties for science, technology, innovation and education
Author:  Elie Gardner
Shows: 946
25.10.2011 Imaging scope may lead to fewer biopsies
Researchers at Cornell University are developing prototypes of multiphoton endoscopes that can be used in clinical settings to directly image tissues or tumors. The latest prototype — 4 cm in length and 3 mm in diameter—is described in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Author:  Anne Ju
Shows: 877
24.10.2011 Turn any surface (skin!) into touchscreen
A wearable projection system turns paper, walls, and even skin into an iPad-like touchscreen. This allows users to control interactive applications by tapping or dragging their fingers, much as they would with touchscreens found on smartphones or tablet computers
Author:  Byron Spice
Shows: 1100
24.10.2011 Cycads not ‘living fossils’
Once thought to be the last remaining members of a plant lineage that went extinct with the dinosaurs, modern-day cycads are now believed to have diverged from a more recent common ancestor
Author:  Nick Bascom
Shows: 1594
21.10.2011 Warning on neural technique
A chemical marker that is commonly used to identify newly generated cells in the brain may be distorting the results of studies of neurogenesis, according to research published inThe Journal of Neuroscience
Author:  Mo Costandi
Shows: 1393
20.10.2011 Ancestor with an electrifying sixth sense
About 96 percent of vertebrates—30,000 land animals (including humans) and roughly an equal number of fish—descend from a common ancestor with a sixth sense: electroreception
Author:  Krishna Ramanujan
Shows: 1259
19.10.2011 Live view of neural stem cells with MRI
Neural stem cells are born deep in an area of the brain called the subventricular zone. As time goes on, the cells, also called neuroblasts, make their way to other areas of the brain where they mature into functioning neurons. The brain’s ability to regenerate its cells is of great interest to scientists
Author:  Jocelyn Duffy
Shows: 1726
18.10.2011 Oxygen blew up ancient amoebas
Giant armor-clad amoebas that once swam Paleozoic seas may have owed their monstrous size to something in the water: oxygen. A new look at the fossil record suggests that a spike in oxygen levels supersized many species of these fusulinids
Author:  Devin Powell
Shows: 1204
18.10.2011 Breathing life into an extinct ethnicity
The Taínos were the first Native Americans to meet European explorers in the Caribbean. They soon fell victim to the diseases and violence brought by the outsiders, and today no Taínos remain
Author:  Susan Young
Shows: 939
17.10.2011 Equation explains forces that repel water, oil
A new equation is the first to predict the hydrophobic interactions of molecules. Such interactions explain why oil and water don’t mix, how proteins are structured, and what holds biological membranes together
Author:  George Foulsham
Shows: 1497
14.10.2011 Liver-disease mutation corrected in human stem cells
A team of researchers has corrected a faulty gene in induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells derived from skin cells of people with an inherited metabolic liver disease. The researchers then developed the stem cells into something resembling liver cells. Their work is published in Nature
Author:  Susan Young
Shows: 2022
13.10.2011 What do pendulums and elastic film share?
A coupled line of swinging pendulums has nothing apparently in common with an elastic film that buckles and folds under compression while floating on a liquid, but scientists have discovered a connection between the two
Author:  Steve Koppes
Shows: 1214
12.10.2011 Biomarker for Huntington’s disease identified
Scientists on the trail of treatments for Huntington’s disease may have found a way to track their success. A new study reports that patients with Huntington’s disease have higher levels of expression of a gene called H2AFY in their blood compared with healthy people
Author:  Nick Bascom
Shows: 1065
11.10.2011 Sulphur gives battery 10x more storage
By combining sulfur-coated hollow carbon nanofibers and an electrolyte additive, researchers have designed a battery that overcomes the storage challenges of current lithium-ion versions
Author:  Stanford
Shows: 1194
10.10.2011 New clues to how body fights viruses
Researchers have determined the structure of a protein that is the first line of defense in fighting viral infections, including influenza, hepatitis C, West Nile, rabies, and measles
Author:  Robin Lally
Shows: 1383
07.10.2011 How to make transistors ‘body compatible’
Unlike human devices, such as light bulbs and iPods, which send information using electrons, human bodies and all other living things send signals and perform work using ions or protons
Author:  Hannah Hickey
Shows: 1113
06.10.2011 Comets take pole position as water bearers
The tide of an ongoing debate about whether comets or asteroids supplied most of Earth's water has turned back to comets with the discovery that the Hartley 2 comet has a similar ratio of heavy water to ordinary water as Earth
Author:  Ron Cowen
Shows: 1171
05.10.2011 A remarkable mosaic of atoms
The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has decided to award the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for 2011 to Dan Shechtman (Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel) «for the discovery of quasicrystals» 
Author:  Press Release Nobel Committe
Shows: 1197
05.10.2011 Self-cleaning cloth breaks down chemicals
A new self-cleaning fabric made from cotton can kill bacteria and break down toxic chemicals such as pesticide residues when exposed to light. The new fabric has potential applications in biological and chemical protective clothing for health care, food processing, and farmworkers, as well as military personnel
Author:  Andy Fell
Shows: 1717
04.10.2011 2011 Nobel Prize for Physics: supernovae and the accelerating universe - October 04, 2011
The 2011 Nobel Prize in Physics has been awarded to astrophysicists Saul Perlmutter, Brian P. Schmidt, and Adam G. Riess, for their discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae
Author:  Van Noorden
Shows: 1820
04.10.2011 Models of autism show that gene copy number controls brain structure and behavior
Scientists at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL) have discovered that one of the most common genetic alterations in autism — deletion of a 27-gene cluster on chromosome 16 — causes autism-like features
Author:  Alyssa Nightingale
Shows: 944
03.10.2011 2011 Medicine Nobel goes to immunology researchers
Three scientists who deciphered key aspects of the body’s defense against infection have won the 2011 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Bruce Beutler of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas, and Jules Hoffmann of the Molecular and Cellular Biology Institute in Strasbourg, France, will share half of the $1.5 million award for discovering the role of toll-like receptor proteins in immune reactions
Author:  Nathan Seppa
Shows: 1557
03.10.2011 Close-ups reveal a weirder Mercury
The first major release of results from NASA's MESSENGER spacecraft, which settled into orbit around Mercury last March, is forcing researchers to reconsider some of their most fundamental ideas about the nature and history of the Solar System's innermost planet
Author:  Ron Cowen
Shows: 1086
30.09.2011 Nonlinear laser light at the nanoscale
By harnessing plasmonics to intensify light, engineers have created an ultra-compact, nanoscale light source that could ultimately find applications in data communications
Author:  Andrew Myers
Shows: 931
29.09.2011 ‘Treg’ cells stop immune system meltdown
Researchers have uncovered new details about the genetic underpinnings of cells known as Tregs, which are currently being tested as treatments for diseases such as type I diabetes, arthritis and lupus
Author:  Leslie Lang
Shows: 1401
28.09.2011 Genuflecting plant discovered in Brazil
The phenomenon, called geocarpy, allows Spigelia genuflex to ensure its seeds end up as close to the mother plant as possible, facilitating its propagation the following season. Peanuts are another example of geocarpy—a rare adaptation to growing in harsh or ephemeral environments
Author:  Carl Blesch
Shows: 1275
28.09.2011 Bacteria encode secret messages
For millennia, people have written secret messages in invisible ink, which could only be read under certain lights or after developing with certain chemicals. Now, scientists have come up with a way of encoding messages in the colours of glowing bacteria
Author:  Ed Yong
Shows: 1175
27.09.2011 Australian Aborigine Hair Tells a Story of Human Migration
A lock of hair, collected by a British anthropologist a century ago, has yielded the first genome of an Australian Aborigine, along with insights into the earliest migration from the ancestral human homeland somewhere in northeast Africa
Author:  Nicholas Wade
Shows: 1641
27.09.2011 News in brief: Genes & Cells
How nanotubes trigger a cell’s gag reflex, the skulking 1918 flu and more in this week’s news.
Author:  Tina Hesman Saey
Shows: 1204
26.09.2011 Penguins may sniff out relatives
In some sniff tests, Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti) in the Brookfield Zoo outside Chicago could discriminate between the odor of birds they knew and birds they weren’t familiar with, says Jill Mateo of the University of Chicago
Author:  Susan Milius
Shows: 1119
23.09.2011 Neutrinos Travel Faster Than Light, According to One Experiment
If it's true, it will mark the biggest discovery in physics in the past half-century: еlusive, nearly massless subatomic particles called neutrinos appear to travel just faster than light, a team of physicists in Europe reports. If so, the observation would wreck Einstein's theory of special relativity, which demands that nothing can travel faster than light
Author:  Adrian Cho
Shows: 1739
23.09.2011 Fermilab faces life after the Tevatron
Like an old and celebrated race track, the giant particle accelerator known as the Tevatron is down to its final laps. Shortly after 2 p.m. on 30 September, with reporters watching by video link from a nearby auditorium, an operator at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in Batavia, Illinois, will divert the final bunches of protons and antiprotons speeding around the Tevatron's 6.3-kilometre ring, sending them barrelling into a solid metal block
Author:  Eugenie Samuel Reich
Shows: 815
22.09.2011 How the Milky Way got its spiral
In the field of cosmology, supercomputer simulations are the only laboratories for scientific experimentation, allowing astronomers to recreate a small-scale simulation or model of distant, violent events that occurred over billions of years, and observe that model in sped-up time, in order to make predictions that can be tested by actual observations of the universe
Author:  Karen Hoffmann
Shows: 1682
22.09.2011 Longevity genes challenged
A widely touted — but controversial — molecular fountain of youth has come under fire yet again, with the publication of new data challenging the link between proteins called sirtuins and longer lifespan. Do sirtuins really lengthen lifespan? 
Author:  Heidi Ledford
Shows: 1952
22.09.2011 Computers uncover new chemical bond
Computer modeling has helped chemists identify a previously unknown type of chemical bond. The University of Illinois research team dubbed the new state “recoupled pair bonding.” “This phenomena has implications for all of chemistry,” says Thom Dunning, who co-leads the research with research chemist David Woon
Author:  Trish Barker
Shows: 1258
21.09.2011 Gamers Crack Code That Could Lead to New AIDS Treatments
The enzyme in question is the Mason-Pfizer monkey virus retroviral protease, and researchers have been seeking ways of deactivating it as a way of developing new anti-HIV drugs. Unfortunately, the conventional efforts of computers and scientists have come up short for years
Author:  Kwame Opam
Shows: 1327
20.09.2011 Gene Therapy May Thwart HIV
This past year, a Berlin man, Timothy Brown, became world famous as the first—and thus far only—person to apparently have been cured of his HIV infection. Brown's HIV disappeared after he developed leukemia and doctors gave him repeated blood transfusions from a donor who harbored a mutated version of a receptor the virus uses to enter cells
Author:  Jon Cohen
Shows: 2061
20.09.2011 Weak link may halt breast cancer’s spread
The discovery of a weakness in breast cancer cells may help prevent the disease from spreading. Only a small proportion of the cells in a tumor—cancer stem cells—are responsible for spreading cancer and for disease relapse. While the cells are highly drug-resistant, scientists at Cardiff University have found a laboratory method that switches off the cells’ resistance to the anti-cancer agent TRAIL
Author:  Jessica Kelly
Shows: 1063
19.09.2011 Mouse mirrors severe form of autism
The first transgenic mouse model of a rare and severe type of autism is expected to improve understanding of the disorder and help researchers design more targeted treatments. The mouse exhibits not only the repetitive physical behaviors, altered social behaviors, but also mirrors behaviors linked to autism spectrum disorder in general, a surprising and encouraging findings, researchers say
Author:  Ellen Goldbaum
Shows: 961
16.09.2011 Planet hunters find Tatooine-like system
NASA’s planet-hunting telescope has spotted one of touchstones of science fiction: a circumbinary, or a planet that orbits two stars. The discovery, announced in the journal Science, comes from the Kepler mission, which has been staring at 155,000 stars in the same patch of sky since its 2009 launch, looking for the slight dimming of light that occurs when a planet passes in front of its parent st
Author:  Eric Hand
Shows: 851
16.09.2011 Amber inclusions showcase prehistoric feathers
A painstaking search through thousands of chunks of amber has unearthed 11 prehistoric feathers. They promise an unprecedented look at the history of these peculiar structures in both birds and non-avian dinosaurs
Author:  Brian Switek
Shows: 1392
15.09.2011 Glowing Kittens Fight Feline AIDS
Scientists have genetically modified cats by infecting their eggs with a virus containing a foreign gene—the first time this method has worked in a carnivore. Experts say the advance could make the cat a valuable new genetic model—and potentially protect it from an HIV-like virus
Author:  Sarah C. P. Williams
Shows: 1275
14.09.2011 ‘Power plants’ in cells linked to disease
Close contact between mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum may be linked to a variety of degenerative diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and stroke. Mitochondria—tiny sausage-shaped organelles within cells that contain their own DNA—act like miniature power plants, providing cells with the energy to move and divide
Author:  Jim Scott
Shows: 1306
13.09.2011 Miniature microscopes capture neurons in action
Scientists have developed a miniature fluorescence microscope small enough to implant in the head of a living mouse and gather images from its brain without hindering its movement. The 1.9-gram, 2.4-cubic-centimetre device is described today in Nature Methods
Author:  Zoë Corbyn
Shows: 1861
12.09.2011 Sniffer dogs and lung cancer detection? Study shows it's possible!
Can the power of scent be used to detect cancer? A new study from Germany, presented in The European Respiratory Journal, has found that sniffer dogs can help physicians make early yet reliable detections of lung cancer in patients. It is the first study to ever make this discovery
Author:  EC
Shows: 1122
11.09.2011 Digital chip analyzes blood from tiny drop
Author:  Liam Mitchell
Shows: 1282
09.09.2011 Nanotech Electrical Motor Is Made From A Single Molecule
Researchers at Tufts University have put together a “molecular motor” that is only about a nanometer across. It’s not the first single-molecule motor ever made, but this one, unlike others, can be activated singly by the minute tip of a scanning electron microscope. They’re working with Guinness to get certified as the smallest motor in the world
Author:  Devin Coldewey
Shows: 912
09.09.2011 Create retinas from ‘Jell-O’
A new method for creating 3D hydrogel scaffolds could aid in the development of new tissue and organs grown in a lab. Hydrogels—a substance similar to Jell-O—are highly flexible and absorbent networks of polymer strings that are frequently used in tissue engineering to act as a scaffold to aid cellular growth and development
Author:  Liam Mitchell
Shows: 1967
07.09.2011 Why influenza B only infects humans
Researchers say they now know why influenza B is limited to humans, a discovery that could lead to new drugs to fight seasonal flu epidemics. The findings also help explain why influenza B cannot be as virulent as A strains that incorporate new genes from influenza viruses that infect other species
Author:  Carl Blesch
Shows: 1123
06.09.2011 Physicists Turn a Single Atom Into a Mirror
You can't get much smaller than this: physicists have fashioned a mirror from a single atom. The advance might lead to an atom-sized transistor for light, and experts say it bodes well for broader efforts to shrink optical elements to the nanometer scale
Author:  Adrian Cho
Shows: 1217
05.09.2011 Could stem cells rescue an endangered species?
Scientists have made reprogrammed stem cells from an endangered rhinoceros and a monkey. Fatu, a female northern white rhinoceros who lives in a Kenyan conservation park, is one of just seven of her kind left in the world. But millions of her stem cells, stored in a freezer in California, might one day help boost her population's ranks
Author:  Ewen Callaway
Shows: 1576
02.09.2011 Lizard genome unveiled
Publication of the genome of the North American green anole lizard has filled a yawning genome-sequence gap in the animal lineage. The paper is the first to sequence the genome of a non-avian reptile. "This fills out a clade that has been completely ignored before," says lead author Jessica Alföldi of the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard in Cambridge, Massachusetts
Author:  Lee Sweetlove
Shows: 1298
02.09.2011 Stone tools shed light on early human migrations
The discovery of stone axes in the same sediment layer as cruder tools indicates that hominins with differing tool-making technologies may have coexisted. The finding includes another important discovery: the hand axes, usually associated with the emergence around 1.5 million years ago of Homo erectus as the dominant hominin species, were found alongside primitive chopping tools that had already been in use for at least a million years
Author:  Matt Kaplan
Shows: 1676
01.09.2011 Humans share. Chimps do, too
Researchers at the Yerkes National Primate Research Center have shown chimpanzees have a significant bias for prosocial behavior. This, the study authors report, is in contrast to previous studies that positioned chimpanzees as reluctant altruists and led to the widely held belief that human altruism evolved in the last six million years only after humans split from apes
Author:  Lisa Newbern
Shows: 954
31.08.2011 Multiple sclerosis: Origin of abnormal cells found
Researchers have discovered the source of cells involved in a phenomenon seen in the brains and spinal cords of people with multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer’s disease. Known as reactive astrogliosis, the condition is characterized by a large number of enlarged star-shaped cells
Author:  Phyllis Brown
Shows: 2269
30.08.2011 Mind-Altering Bugs
Hundreds of species of bacteria call the human gut their home. This gut "microbiome" influences our physiology and health in ways that scientists are only beginning to understand. Now, a new study suggests that gut bacteria can even mess with the mind, altering brain chemistry and changing mood and behavior
Author:  Greg Miller
Shows: 2145
29.08.2011 Solar cells could get quantum boost
Atoms' fuzzy energy levels could be exploited to enhance photovoltaics and semiconductor lasers, study suggests. Adding a bit of quantum fuzz could provide a free power boost to lasers and solar panels. Blurry atoms that can exist in two states at once should help such devices more efficiently harness energy from light, a new analysis suggests
Author:  Devin Powell
Shows: 953
28.08.2011 Weak synapses may cause lines to blur
Neurons in the primary visual cortex respond selectively to lines and edges of visual images, allowing the brain to distinguish their orientation, according to a new study. The research, published in the journal Neuron, focuses on the crucial role inhibitory synapses play in recognizing orientation and may have implications for treating decreased cognitive function in the aging brain
Author:  Alison Trinidad
Shows: 1906
27.08.2011 Cause of Lou Gehrig’s disease found
Scientists have identified a common cause for all forms of ALS (also known as Lou Gehrig’s disease), a fatal neurodegenerative disease that paralyzes its victims. The underlying disease process of ALS has long eluded scientists and prevented development of effective therapies. Scientists weren’t even sure all its forms actually converged into a common disease process
Author:  Marla Paul
Shows: 2966
26.08.2011 'Time Cells' Weave Events Into Memories
In the mind, as in the outside world, the flow of events contains individual experiences strung together in sequence yet separated by gaps in time. New research shows that during these gaps, neurons in a part of the brain called the hippocampus encode each "empty" moment as precisely as the surrounding events, allowing the brain to make detailed representations of time
Author:  Elizabeth Norton
Shows: 1383
25.08.2011 'Jurassic Mother' Found in China
Way back in the Late Jurassic, 160 million years ago, your closest relative looked like a shrew. That's not an insult but an evolutionary truth that stems from a new fossil discovery that pushes back the earliest appearance of the peculiar group of mammals to which we, as well as many other mammal species, belong
Author:  Brian Switek
Shows: 820
24.08.2011 Cat urine is a ‘turn-on’ for some rats
The same brain region that triggers a mating response in male rats also lights up when rats smell cat urine—if those rats are infected with the parasite Toxoplasma. Humans acquire the parasite by eating undercooked meat or "eating little bits of cat poop, which I suspect happens more often than people want to admit," says Patrick House
Shows: 1182
23.08.2011 Climate change will hit genetic diversity
Climate change represents a threat not only to the existence of individual species, but also to the genetic diversity hidden within them, researchers say. The finding promises to complicate assessments of how climate change will affect biodiversity, as well as conservationists' task in preserving it
Author:  Virginia Gewin
Shows: 1441
22.08.2011 New candidates for oldest fossils
Researchers have found what could be the oldest microbial fossils yet documented. The traces, discovered in 3.4-billion-year-old Australian rocks, might help to resolve the question of when cellular life arose, and how it produced energy
Author:  Lee Sweetlove
Shows: 856
19.08.2011 New Computer Chip Modeled on a Living Brain Can Learn and Remember
IBM, with help from DARPA, has built two working prototypes of a "neurosynaptic chip." Based on the neurons and synapses of the brain, these first-generation cognitive computing cores could represent a major leap in power, speed and efficiency. A pair of brain-inspired cognitive computer chips unveiled today could be a new leap forward — or at least a major fork in the road — in the world of computer architecture and artificial intelligence
Author:  Rebecca Boyle
Shows: 1841
19.08.2011 Goodnight, Old Moon
A new analysis of a lunar rock brought back by the 1972 Apollo 16 mission suggests that the moon could be tens of millions of years younger than previously thought. Another possibility, scientists say, is that current models of how the moon cooled in its early years may be totally wrong
Author:  Sid Perkins
Shows: 1163
18.08.2011 Disorder attracts water to nanotubes
The unexpected observation is intriguing because carbon nanotubes may be central to the emerging fields of nanofluidics and nanofiltration, where nanotubes may be able to help maintain tiny flows or separate impurities from water. That’s because water forms an extensive network of hydrogen bonds, which gives it stability. Breaking those strong interactions requires energy. And since some bonds have to be broken in order for water to flow into small nanotubes, it would seem unlikely that water would do so freely
Author:  Deborah Williams
Shows: 1381
17.08.2011 Optics used to track single cell’s growth
Researchers are using optics to measure a basic biological process: the growth of single cells. It’s a process that has been difficult to quantify using other methods. Engineers from the Beckman Institute at the University of Illinois recently reported in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences using small changes in the optical properties of single living cells to measure their growth
Author:  Steve McGaughey
Shows: 1067
16.08.2011 Honeycomb Carbon Crystals Possibly Detected in Space
NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope has spotted the signature of flat carbon flakes, called graphene, in space. If confirmed, this would be the first-ever cosmic detection of the material - which is arranged like chicken wire in flat sheets that are one atom thick
Author:  Whitney Clavin
Shows: 1276
15.08.2011 Комп'ютери під нашу шкіру
A small electronic device slapped onto the skin like a temporary tattoo could bring us closer to a future that melds body and machine, a cyborg world where people have cell phones embedded in their throats and Internet browsers literally at their fingertips
Author:  Laura Sanders
Shows: 882
12.08.2011 Cod genome reveals unusual immune system
The sequencing of the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) genome has revealed an immune system never seen before in jawed vertebrates. The finding could be used to develop better vaccines and to improve disease management in farmed cod
Author:  George Wigmore
Shows: 1244
11.08.2011 Nanotubes used as chemical reactors
Researchers know that physical and chemical properties of molecules inserted into carbon nanotubes are different to the properties of free molecules, presenting a powerful mechanism for harnessing their functional properties, such as magnetic or optical, and for controlling their chemical reactivity
Author:  Emma Thorne
Shows: 1182
09.08.2011 How Planets Can Survive a Supernova
When a star dies in a violent supernova, some of its planets may survive the blast but be ejected from orbit and sent wandering the galaxy, a new study suggests. The theory offers an explanation for the handful of free-roaming planets found so far, and it could mean many more such rogue worlds exist across the Milky Way
Author:  Andrew Fazekas
Shows: 1134
09.08.2011 The Mystery of the Missing Fingerprints
In 2007, a Swiss woman in her late 20s had an unusually hard time crossing the U.S. border. Customs agents could not confirm her identity. The woman's passport picture matched her face just fine, but when the agents scanned her hands, they discovered something shocking: she had no fingerprints
Author:  Natalie Villacorta
Shows: 1082
08.08.2011 Nanotransistor’s incubator
In the Kyiv Kurdyumov Metal Physics Institute scientists have created a setting that allows to grow nanoscale objects with given settings for modern electronics. In the development are interested Ukrainian entrepreneurs in seeking to revive in Ukraine microelectronics. However, to introduce new cutting-edge technology is not yet possible. Why?
Author:  Anatoly Lemysh
Shows: 941
06.08.2011 How exercise benefits nerve cells
Nerve cell communication gets better with use. A neuron’s electrical activity triggers other cells to come and slather on a protective coating that makes messages travel faster, a study published online August 4 in Science shows
Author:  Laura Sanders
Shows: 1930
05.08.2011 On the trail of cell navigation
Cells seeking paths through the body’s tangle of tissues might adapt the navigational strategy of Hansel and Gretel. In the Brothers Grimm tale, the lost kids dropped pebbles and bread crumbs along a wooded trail to help lead them back out of a freaky forest. Instead of using markers telling them where to go, though, cells might leave behind repellent molecules telling them where not to go
Author:  Nadia Drake
Shows: 1430
04.08.2011 Early Earth may have had two moons
Earth once had two moons, which merged in a slow-motion collision that took several hours to complete, researchers propose. Both satellites would have formed from debris that was ejected when a Mars-size protoplanet smacked into Earth late in its formation period. Whereas traditional theory states that the infant Moon rapidly swept up any rivals or gravitationally ejected them into interstellar space, the new theory suggests that one body survived, parked in a gravitationally stable point in the Earth–Moon system
Author:  Richard Lovett
Shows: 1434
03.08.2011 Ukraine will launch its own satellite
Ukrainian government have been registered in the Verkhovna Rada a bill that expands the powers of the State Space Agency of Ukraine. In particular, he proposed to guide satellite. In SSAU argue that innovation will help in 2013 to launch the first Ukrainian satellite communications, through which may have its own navigation system
Author:  geografica.net
Shows: 1653
03.08.2011 Mission to Jupiter: Gas Giant May Hold Keys to Understanding Solar System Formation, Evolution
Several University of Colorado Boulder faculty and students are participating in NASA's Juno Mission to Jupiter, now slated for launch Aug. 5 from Florida's Kennedy Space Center and which is expected to help steer scientists toward the right recipe for planet-making
Author:  ScienceDaily
Shows: 1938
02.08.2011 Placenta to the rescue
The placenta has long been thought of as a passive organ that simply enables a fetus to take up nutrients from its mother. But new research in mice shows that when calories are restricted, the placenta steps up to the plate – actively sacrificing itself to protect the fetal brain from damage
Author:  Zoë Corbyn
Shows: 2285
01.08.2011 Modern Humans 10, Neandertals 1
Two animal species can rarely occupy the same niche. The same, it seems, goes for human populations. A new study of Neandertal and modern human sites in the south of France concludes that the moderns so greatly outnumbered their evolutionary cousins that Neandertals had little choice but to go extinct
Author:  Michael Balter
Shows: 1120
31.07.2011 Archaeopteryx no longer first bird
Analysis of fossil traits suggests that Archaeopteryx is not a bird at all. The latest discovery of a fossil that treads the line between birds and non-avian dinosaurs is leading palaeontologists to reassess the creature that has been considered the evolutionary link between the two
Author:  Matt Kaplan
Shows: 1107
29.07.2011 Polyhedron ‘cage’ acts as molecular trap
Researchers have sought to coerce molecules to form regular polyhedra—three-dimensional objects in which each side, or face, is a polygon—but without sustained success. Archimedean solids, discovered by the ancient Greek mathematician Archimedes, have attracted considerable attention in this regard
Author:  James Devitt
Shows: 1368
27.07.2011 Gargantuan, farthest water mass found

A mass of water vapor in a quasar that is 30 billion trillion miles away is at least 140 trillion times that of all the water in the world’s oceans combined, and 100,000 times more massive than the sun

Author:  Deborah Williams
Shows: 904
27.07.2011 Particle Physicists Report Possible Hints of Long-Sought Higgs Boson
Physicists working with the world's largest atom smasher may have spotted evidence of the long-sought Higgs boson. At least that's the unofficial result that has the 800 physicists here for the biannual Europhysics Conference on High-Energy Physics abuzz
Author:  Adrian Cho
Shows: 1061
26.07.2011 To convert biomass, pretreat with ammonia
Researchers have identified a potential pretreatment method that can make plant cellulose five times more digestible by enzymes that convert it into ethanol. Presently, ethanol or other biofuels can only be produced in usable quantities if the biomass—corn leaves, stalks, or switchgrass—is pretreated with costly, potentially toxic chemicals in an energy-intensive process
Author:  Layne Cameron
Shows: 861
22.07.2011 Quantum theory gets physical
New work finds physical basis for quantum mechanics. Physicists in Canada and Italy have derived quantum mechanics from physical principles related to the storage, manipulation and retrieval of information. The new work is a step in a long, ongoing effort to find fundamental physical motivation for the math of quantum physics, which describes processes in the atomic and subatomic realms with unerring accuracy but defies commonsense understanding
Author:  Devin Powell
Shows: 1047
21.07.2011 Google research chief pushes 'big data'
Peter Norvig, director of research at Google, discusses the future of Internet search tools, social networking and science. Peter Norvig says that he has the best job in the world. A world expert in artificial intelligence, he has been at Google — where he is now the director of research — since 2001
Author:  Eric Hand
Shows: 933
21.07.2011 Shuffling the genetic deck
Two new genetic maps of African-Americans reveal that people of West African descent have more hot spots where chromosomes mix and match genes than people of European heritage do. Until recently scientists knew next to nothing about the process humans use to mix and match parents’ genes to create a unique combination in a child
Author:  Tina Hesman Saey
Shows: 1216
18.07.2011 Giant Undersea Volcanoes Found Off Antarctica
A chain of giant undersea volcanoes has been found off Antarctica, scientists say. All told a dozen previously unknown peaks were discovered beneath the waves—some up to 10,000 feet (3,000 meters) tall, according to the British Antarctic Survey
Author:  Richard A. Lovett
Shows: 1615
17.07.2011 Separated at Birth?
A half-billion-year-old fossil "compound" eye (left)—likely from an ancient shrimplike predator—was surprisingly advanced for its time and gave its owner vision comparable to those of modern insects, such as the robber fly (right), a new study says
Author:  Ker Than
Shows: 1050
13.07.2011 (Cellular) Death by Chocolate
Those extra slices of chocolate cake may do more than just add a few extra pounds—they can create a toxic environment that kills your cells. Now researchers say they have identified an important player in this process: a type of RNA previously thought only to modify other RNA molecules
Author:  Carrie Arnold
Shows: 1201
11.07.2011 Earth Has "Spare Tire"—And Ice Melt's Keeping It That Way
Waistline bulge has stopped slimming, thanks to massive melting. Earth isn't losing its "spare tire" as fast as it should be, according to new research—and it's definitely not because the planet's not getting enough water.
Author:  Rachel Kaufman
Shows: 1302
08.07.2011 Pollen fossils unearth climate history
In the warmest period in Earth’s past 55 million years, Antarctica was ice-free and forested. The continent’s vast ice sheets, which today contain more than two-thirds of Earth’s freshwater, began forming about 38 million years ago
Author:  RICE U. (US)
Shows: 869
08.07.2011 Disabled Japanese Man Begins Robo-Suit Adventure
A disabled Japanese man on Friday embarked on an ambitious trip that will take him to a medieval French World Heritage site with the help of a cutting-edge robotic suit
Author:  AFP
Shows: 949
07.07.2011 Magnetic Nanoparticles Fry Tumors
Any parent fretting over a child's fever knows that temperatures just a few degrees above normal can kill. But cancer researchers have now found a way to make high temperatures heal
Author:  Tim Wogan
Shows: 1117
06.07.2011 Mating Mites Trapped in Amber Reveal Sex Role Reversal
In a paper published March 1 in the Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, researchers Pavel Klimov and Ekaterina Sidorchuk describe an extinct mite species in which the traditional sex roles were reversed
Author:  Science.org
Shows: 1042
05.07.2011 Yeast gene makes old cells young again
Сhildren typically have the same life expectancy at birth, regardless of whether their father is 20 years old or 80. This must mean that the man's reproductive cells somehow reset their clocks, but how they do this has been a mystery. Now a gene that reverses ageing effects in yeast is providing some clues
Author:  Newscientist.com
Shows: 1041
05.07.2011 Weevils evolved nut-and-screw joint
Back when hardware meant bony plates and flesh-rending teeth, a living version of the humble screw evolved naturally in, of all places, the leg joints of weevils 
Author:  Susan Milius
Shows: 2060
04.07.2011 General Electric will create a research center in "Skolkovo"
The signing ceremony for preliminary agreement on cooperation between the Fund "Skolkovo" and the American corporation General Electric (GE) was held in Moscow on Thursday
Author:  RIA Novosti
Shows: 905
03.07.2011 Glacier melt
Ocean currents are scouring Antarctica’s floating Pine Island Glacier from below, causing it to melt ever faster. 
Author:  Alexandra Witze
Shows: 1144
30.06.2011 Silver Ballpoint Pen Can Draw Functional Electronic Circuits on Paper
First mightier than the sword, now mightier than the laser. A plain rollerball pen filled with a conductive ink can draw circuits on a sheet of paper, where they can provide power to an LED display and an antenna, among other potential uses.
Author:  Rebecca Boyle
Shows: 1569
30.06.2011 Nanoorigamy
Question derive three-dimensional nanostructures is currently very topical, especially for the needs of microelectronics. But in practice, to solve this task very difficult, especially when considering the introduction into mass production.  
Author:  Chepikov Vsevolod
Shows: 862
29.06.2011 New gene therapy fixes mistakes
A new type of gene therapy allows scientists to fix DNA defects directly. That’s a potentially revolutionary improvement on present gene therapy techniques, which introduce working genes to cells — but not into the genetic library itself. “This is a major leap of the technology,” says John Rossi, a molecular geneticist at the Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope in Duarte, Calif.
Author:  Tina Hesman Saey
Shows: 1408
29.06.2011 Bone may display oldest art in Americas
Mammoth engraved on fossil may date from at least 13,000 year ago. An engraving of an Ice Age mammoth on a fossil bone possibly represents the oldest drawing in the Americas. 
Author:  Bruce Bower
Shows: 1262
28.06.2011 Blue light used to treat diabetes
Engineered cells in mice make protein that controls blood sugar. Attention, shoppers: The latest blue light special could help combat diabetes and some genetic diseases. 
Author:  Tina Hesman Saey
Shows: 1395
28.06.2011 City living marks the brain Neuroscientists study social risk factor for mental illness.

Epidemiologists showed decades ago that people raised in cities are more prone to mental disorders than those raised in the countryside. But neuroscientists have avoided studying the connection, preferring to leave the disorderly realm of the social environment to social scientists. A paper in this issue of Naturerepresents a pioneering foray across that divide.

Author:  Alison Abbott
Shows: 923
27.06.2011 China establishes national gene bank in Shenzhen

China established its first national gene bank on Friday in south China's city of Shenzhen with the support of the Beijing Genomics Institute (BGI), officials said.

Author:  Xinhua News
Shows: 1186
27.06.2011 Russia launched military satellite into orbit from the Plesetsk
Moscow. June 27. From the spaceport Plesetsk (Arkhangelsk region, Russia) was launched booster "Soyuz-U" successfully launched on the target orbit Russian military spacecraft series "Kosmos" 
Author:  "Interfax-AAN"
Shows: 807
26.06.2011 What would you ask a Nobel Laureate?
The team from the Lindau office, Nature and Spektrum together with bloggers, the film crew, as well as attendees report from this extraordinary science meeting. 
Author:  Lindau Nobel Community
Shows: 818
23.06.2011 Using scout particles to pave the way makes drug delivery more effective.
Using the two nanoparticles in tandem in mice increased the amount of drug delivered to a tumour by 40-fold relative to controls
Author:  Corie Lok
Shows: 1325
22.06.2011 New technique spins superlong nanowires
Fibers are millionths of a millimeter across and kilometers long.In a feat that puts Rumpelstiltskin to shame, scientists have spun a multitude of high tech materials into bundles of superfine nanowires that are more than 1000 meters long. The new technique, reported online June 12 in Nature Materials, easily produces uniform, orderly arrays of gossamer-thin materials that could have broad use in sensors, energy-harvesting devices and medical diagnostics
Author:  Rachel Ehrenberg
Shows: 1107
22.06.2011 Voyager at the edge
Spacecraft finds unexpected calm at the boundary of Sun's bubble. The Voyager 1 spacecraft, and its partner, Voyager 2, are approaching the edge of the Sun's protective bubble
Author:  Geoff Brumfiel
Shows: 1114
21.06.2011 Modern-day sea level rise skyrocketing
Increase began with the Industrial Revolution
Author:  Janet Raloff
Shows: 1162
21.06.2011 Brain has two slots for working memory
Mental version of RAM has an independent module in each hemisphere. Like side-by-side computer RAM cards, the left and the right hemispheres of the brain store information separately, a new study finds. The results help explain why people can remember only a handful of objects at one time, and suggest that people may be able to maximize their cognitive power by delivering information in equal doses to both sides of the brain, researchers suggest online the week of June 20 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 
Author:  Laura Sanders
Shows: 1495
20.06.2011 Japanese supercomputer "K" led the Top-500 superpower systems
The most authoritative ranking of supercomputers in the world Top-500 supercomputer headed Japanese "K", relegating to second Chinese "Tianhe-1A", said on Monday the site Top500.org.
Author:  Ivan Shadrin
Shows: 1509
17.06.2011 Scientists Prove Existence of 'Magnetic Ropes' That Cause Solar Storms
George Mason University scientists discovered recently that a phenomenon called a giant magnetic rope is the cause of solar storms. Confirming the existence of this formation is a key first step in helping to mitigate the adverse effects that solar storm eruptions can have on satellite communications on Earth.  
Author:  ScienceDaily
Shows: 1288
17.06.2011 Study Sheds Light On Red Tide Toxin
Researchers at Texas A&M University have determined why red tide algae in the Gulf of Mexico make toxin, a development that could prove beneficial to both human and marine life. Red tide refers to the periodic blooms of microscopic algae that usually crop up in late summer or early fall throughout the Gulf Coast states. Exposure to the algal blooms can kill marine life and pose health risks in humans.  
Author:  Texas A&M University
Shows: 1251
16.06.2011 Species spellchecker fixes plant glitches
Online tool should weed out misspellings and duplications. Completed in December 2010, the records were intended to help Enquist and his colleagues to discern trends in how forest trees in a wide variety of environments respond to climate change. But the data were clearly full of bogus names, making it impossible to count the species in a particular area, or their relative abundance.
Author:  John Whitfield
Shows: 1063
16.06.2011 Argentina: Cloned cow to produce "human milk"
Scientists in Argentina have cloned the world's first transgenic cow, using human genes that will allow the animal to produce the equivalent of mothers' milk.
Author:  Global Post
Shows: 1017
15.06.2011 Human cell becomes living laser
Scientists have for the first time created laser light using living biological material: a single human cell and some jellyfish protein. Jellyfish protein amplifies light in first biological laser.

Author:  Zoë Corbyn
Shows: 1440
11.06.2011 Scientists Rush to Study Genome of Lethal E. coli
Some scientists are suggesting that a new class of pathogenic E. coli that is both enterohemorrhagic and enteroaggregative has been found. As the number of EHEC cases started to rise in Germany, reseachers from all the world cooperated to study this tragedy. 
Author:  Kai Kupferschmidt
Shows: 1487
21.05.2011 Artificial Tissue Promotes Skin Growth in Wounds

Victims of third-degree burns and other traumatic injuries endure pain, disfigurement, invasive surgeries and a long time waiting for skin to grow back. Improved tissue grafts designed by Cornell scientists that promote vascular growth could hasten healing, encourage healthy skin to invade the wounded area and reduce the need for surgeries. 

Shows: 1420
11.05.2011 Antiuniverse here we come

A controversial cosmic-ray detector destined for the International Space Station will soon get to prove its worth. 

Author:  Eugenie Samuel Reich
Shows: 1049
20.04.2011 Asteroid Model Shows Early Life Suffered a Billion-Year Battering

Geologists and planetary scientists at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference reported evidence of a prolonged pummeling by huge asteroids several billion years ago that would have dwarfed the one that killed off the dinosaurs.

Author:  Richard A. Kerr
Shows: 1189
12.04.2011 Chaos promotes stereotyping

The idea that neglected environments encourage crime and antisocial behaviour has been around since the 1980s. Now, a study shows that messy surroundings also make people more likely to stereotype others. 

Author:  Philip Ball
Shows: 1172
08.04.2011 Soyuz docks 50 years after Gagarin's voyage

A Soyuz craft adorned with a portrait of the first man in space docked with the International Space Station Thursday, days before the 50th anniversary of Yuri Gagarin's pioneering flight. 

Shows: 1145
06.04.2011 Antarctic microbes live life to the extreme

You might not expect bacteria living in Antarctic ice to be well suited to life in a boiling kettle, but that is what Chilean scientists discovered during an expedition last year. The researchers have turned up more than 200 new species of microorganisms adapted to living in extreme environments. 

Author:  Patricio Segura Ortiz
Shows: 1627
27.03.2011 Japan tsunami: Toll tops 10,000 two weeks after quake

The death toll from Japan's 11 March earthquake and tsunami has passed 10,000, police say. More than 17,440 people are listed as missing, and 2,775 as injured. Hundreds of thousands remain homeless. Meanwhile, the government says an investigation is under way to establish the source of the radiation leak at the quake-hit Fukushima nuclear plant, which left two workers in hospital.The death toll from Japan's 11 March earthquake and tsunami has passed 10,000, police say. More than 17,440 people are listed as missing, and 2,775 as injured. Hundreds of thousands remain homeless. 

Shows: 1112
25.03.2011 Water - A Chemical Solution: A Global Experiment

School students around the world will be invited to explore one of Earth’s most critical resources, water. The results of their investigations will contribute to a Global Experiment, which will possibly become the biggest chemistry experiment ever.

Shows: 3042
22.03.2011 Japan quake may alter where U.S. builds nuke plants
Japan's nuclear crisis will influence where the United States builds future nuclear power plants, and the operation of a facility near New York City will be reviewed in the wake of the disaster, U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu said on Sunday.
Author:  By Vicki Allen and Lesley Wroughton
Shows: 1165
21.03.2011 Major Clue in Long-Term Memory-Making
You may remember the color of your loved one's eyes for years. But how? Scientists believe that long-term potentiation (LTP) -- the long-lasting increase of signals across a connection between brain cells -- underlies our ability to remember over time and to learn, but how that happens is a central question in neuroscience. 
Shows: 1123
19.03.2011 New Insight Into the Brain's Ability to Reorganize Itself
When Geoffrey Murphy, Ph.D., talks about plastic structures, he's not talking about the same thing as Mr. McGuire in The Graduate. To Murphy, an associate professor of molecular and integrative physiology at the University of Michigan Medical School, plasticity refers to the brain's ability to change as we learn.
Shows: 1994
14.03.2011 Scientists Discover Anti-Anxiety Circuit in BrainRegion Considered the Seat of Fear
Stimulation of a distinct brain circuit that lies within a brain structure typically associated with fearfulness produces the opposite effect: Its activity, instead of triggering or increasing anxiety, counters it. 
Shows: 1453
10.03.2011 High-Volume Portable Music Players May Impair Ability to Clearly Discriminate Sounds
Growing numbers of people enjoy listening to music on portable music players or cell phones, and many tend to turn up the volume, especially in noisy surroundings. In a study published March 2, 2011 in the open-access journal PLoS ONE, researchers explore the potential effects of this behavior on hearing. 
Shows: 1558
15.02.2011 Nanonets give rust a boost as agent in water splitting's hydrogen harvest
Coating a lattice of tiny wires called Nanonets with iron oxide – known more commonly as rust – creates an economical and efficient platform for the process of water splitting, an emerging clean fuel science that harvests hydrogen from water, Boston College researchers report in the online edition of the Journal of the American Chemical Society
Shows: 4645
09.02.2011 Birds living near Chernobyl have smaller brains due to radiation, scientists warn

Birds living near the site of the Chernobyl nuclear disaster have 5 per cent smaller brains caused by lingering background radiation, according to researchers. Scientists looked at 550 birds from 48 different species living in the exclusion zone surrounding the Ukranian power plant.

Author:  DAILY MAIL REPORTER
Shows: 2356
07.02.2011 Choices -- not discrimination -- determine success for women scientists, Cornell researchers say
It's an incendiary topic in academia – the pervasive belief that women are underrepresented in science, math and engineering fields because they face sex discrimination in the interviewing, hiring, and grant and manuscript review processes.
Author:  John Carberry
Shows: 1900
31.01.2011 The Species Problem
Our ancestors had sex with at least two kinds of archaic humans at two different times and places—and those liaisons produced surviving children, according to the latest ancient DNA research. But were the participants in these prehistoric encounters members of separate species? Doesn't a species, by definition, breed only with others of that species? 
Author:  Ann Gibbons
Shows: 1392
28.01.2011 Mixed results shown from dispersants in BP spill
Dispersants injected deep in the Gulf of Mexico to counter an oil gusher last spring seemed to keep some oil from fouling the water's surface, but the chemicals lingered underwater, raising concerns about long-term problems, a new study found. The first extensive research found a mixed bag of results.
Author:  Seth Borenstein
Shows: 1235
27.01.2011 Toxic Ash Clouds Might Be Culprit in Biggest Mass Extinction
Tiny particles embedded in ancient Canadian rocks have provided new clues about what might have triggered Earth's deadliest mass extinction. The ultimate cause, researchers say, might be globe-smothering clouds of toxic ash similar to that spewed by modern-day coal-fired power plants. 
Author:  Sid Perkins
Shows: 1417
26.01.2011 Salt-loving microbe forges its own path
The announcement of a third metabolic pathway raises possibility that there are more to be found. The discovery in a hardy microbe of a novel way of processing carbon shows that there are more ways for organisms to sustain life in the harshest of environments than previously thought.
Author:  Tiffany O'Callaghan
Shows: 1085
25.01.2011 Insights of the Decade: Reprogramming Cells
By prompting a cell to overexpress a few genes, researchers have discovered in the past decade how to turn a skin or blood cell into a pluripotent cell: one that has regained the potential to become any number of cells in the body. Scientists are already using the technique to make cell lines from patients with hard-to-study diseases, and ultimately they hope to grow genetically matched replacement cells and tissues—perhaps even entire organs.
Author:  Gretchen Vogel
Shows: 2201
24.01.2011 Turtles Are Not Just Drifters
Biologists have long assumed that young loggerhead turtles simply catch a ride in the circulating currents of the North Atlantic Ocean, which takes them north, east, down along northern Africa, and finally back around to Florida again. Now seven turtles have demonstrated that they do more than simply follow the currents.
Author:  Elizabeth Pennisi
Shows: 1367
21.01.2011 Transgenic Chickens Could Thwart Bird Flu, Curb Pandemic Risk
The chicken soup of the future might just be made from transgenic birds that can't get bird flu—if regulators decide they're safe and consumers don't object. U.K. scientists have created transgenic chickens that can't pass on avian influenza, a disease that decimates poultry flocks and that flu scientists fear could spawn an influenza pandemic among humans.
Author:  Martin Enserink
Shows: 1714
20.01.2011 Hottest planet is hotter than some stars
Astronomers have found the hottest planet yet, a gas giant with a temperature of nearly 3200 °C, which is hotter than some stars. A collaboration called the Super Wide Angle Search for Planets (SuperWASP) announced hints of the planet's existence in 2006. Follow-up measurements confirmed the planet's presence in 2010.
Author:  David Shiga
Shows: 1358
20.01.2011 Mediteranian Stone Age Sailors
Remains of Neolithic settlements dot the Mediterranean's islands and coastlines. Where did these seafaring migrants come from, or did indigenous peoples pick up technology from their neighbors as new ways of life, including farming, spread around the region?
Author:  Andrew Lawler
Shows: 1166
19.01.2011 Keeping Watch as the Old Kingdom Crumbled
With walls 7 meters thick and 4 meters high, the round stone fort was a potent symbol of ancient Egypt's power, more than 250 kilometers from its Nile Valley heartland. Egypt's Old Kingdom is one of the best known ancient cultures, thanks to hieroglyphic texts and the material culture buried in famous pyramids such as those at Saqqara and Giza.
Author:  Andrew Lawler
Shows: 1435
18.01.2011 Model Organisms and Human Health
Hundreds of scientists have collaborated in these two major studies, which have moved us far beyond the complete descriptions of the DNA molecules that make up the fly and worm genomes published a little more than a decade ago, an accomplishment that seemed amazing then.
Author:  Bruce Alberts
Shows: 1136
17.01.2011 Pandas Prefer Old Forests
Giant pandas voraciously consume bamboo and little else. But they are also fussy about where they live. Scientists have found that pandas prefer to roam in old-growth, or natural, forests—those that have never been logged or disturbed—a discovery they hope will influence conservation policies for the endangered animal.
Author:  Dennis Normile
Shows: 1401
14.01.2011 The Dusty Swirls of the Whirlpool Galaxy
Like dancing fire dragons, two dusty spiral arms swirl around the core of the Whirlpool galaxy. The image, presented  today at the 217th meeting of the American Astronomical Society, was obtained by subtracting known starlight from a photograph taken by Hubble's Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer
Shows: 1404
13.01.2011 Walking Speed Predicts Life Expectancy of Older Adults
Baby boomers who keep up the pace as they age are likely to outlive those who slow down. Although walking pace is a seemingly basic measure to make, it has been gaining traction in the gerontology world as a reliable marker for overall health and longevity for those 65 and older.
Author:  Katherine Harmon
Shows: 1541
12.01.2011 Hong Kong researchers store data in bacteria
A group of students at Hong Kong's Chinese University are making strides towards storing such vast amounts of information in an unexpected home: the E.coli bacterium better known as a potential source of serious food poisoning. Biostorage is a young field, having existed for about a decade.
Author:  Judith Evans
Shows: 1195
11.01.2011 Excavation Yields Tantalizing Hints of Earliest Marine Reptiles
The origins of marine reptiles are an enigma. Their ancestors came from the land, but scientists can only imagine what sort of animals ventured into the sea and evolved into the three successful lineages of marine reptiles. Answers may be entombed at Majiashan quarry, in a 150-meter-thick outcropping that spans 6 million years of geologic history.
Author:  Richard Stone
Shows: 1542
11.01.2011 Dedicated to Memory?
A decade ago, available evidence led to the conclusion that different forms of memory should be viewed as the outcome of plasticity within systems organized to perform particular information processing functions. A new study offers a partial answer: The MTL's perirhinal cortex binds featural elements into cohesive configural memories, and this function is supported by known plasticity mechanisms.
Author:  Howard Eichenbaum
Shows: 1228
10.01.2011 Bacteria and Asthma: Untangling the Links
Six years ago, Gary Huffnagle, an immunologist at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, conducted an experiment that reflects what happens to many of us early in life. He exposed mice to a triple whammy: yeast in their intestines, mold spores up their noses that migrated down the airways, and an antibiotic drug. he animals began showing signs of asthma; blood tests revealed disruption of their immune systems.
Author:  Jennifer Couzin-Frankel
Shows: 1642
10.01.2011 Carbon War Room kicks off webinar and seminar series for industry on 14 January
A not-for-profit organization targeting market-driven solutions to climate change, announced today the launch of a series of online and live seminars for shipping industry participants on its Shippingefficiency.org online service - launched at the UN climate change talks in December.
Shows: 1396
30.12.2010 THE DARK GENOME - Insights of the Decade
Gene regulation has turned out to be a surprisingly complex process governed by various types of regulatory DNA, which may lie deep in the wilderness of so-called junk DNA that lies between genes. Far from being humble messengers, RNAs of all shapes and sizes are actually powerful players in how genomes operate.
Author:  Elizabeth Pennisi
Shows: 1534
30.12.2010 Lost civilization under Persian Gulf?
A once fertile landmass now submerged beneath the Persian Gulf may have been home to some of the earliest human populations outside Africa, according to an article in the December issue of Current Anthropology. This 'Persian Gulf Oasis' may have been host to humans for over 100,000 years before it was swallowed up by the Indian Ocean.
Shows: 1163
24.12.2010 Chilled light enters a new phase
The fuzzy dividing line between light and atoms has been blurred even further. Quantum physicists have created the first Bose-Einstein condensate using photons--a feat until now suspected to be possible only for atoms. The technique could be used to increase the efficiency of solar cells and lasers.
Author:  Zeeya Merali
Shows: 1261
17.12.2010 Insights of the Decade
In addition to naming the top scientific advances of 2010, Science's news team reviews some big ideas from the past decade. Junk DNA, pluripotent cells, new views of the prehistoric world based on DNA analysis, the confimation of water on mars and the development of metamaterials are discussed among other discoveries.
Shows: 1920
17.12.2010 2010 BREAKTHROUGHS OF THE YEAR
In January the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change offers “regrets” about overstating the rate of glacier melting in the Himalayas. In March a new species of human discovered from ancient DNA. In October parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity adopt new targets to protect biodiversity and urge caution on geoengineering and more.
Shows: 1388
17.12.2010 Ukrainian scientists no longer leaving the country but continue to grow old and die
The trend of departure of Ukrainian doctors of science abroad for permanent residence has come down to almost nothing. However, the trend of scientists aging is gaining in strength. In general, over the past five years, Ukraine has had a moderate outflow of scientists with doctoral degrees leaving for other countries - about 6 people annually.
Shows: 1299
17.12.2010 Cultivating Young Academies: Germany’s Young Academy
This October, Germany celebrated the 20th anniversary of its reunification. Over the past two decades, the country has worked hard to reestablish its leadership in the sciences, investing heavily in R&D. This commitment has led to the growth of research institutions, graduate programs, and international collaborations.
Author:  Volker ter Meulen and Günter Stock
Shows: 1244
17.12.2010 Italian Parliament Passes Controversial University Reforms
The latest attempt to reform Italy's archaic university system passed an important milestone last week when the Italian Parliament's lower house approved a proposed law aimed at eliminating nepotism in academic appointments as well as improving the quality of teaching and research. The reforms have been contested by much of Italy's university community.
Author:  Edwin Cartlidge
Shows: 1239
16.12.2010 What's Hiding the Universe's Brightest Explosions?
Some of the most powerful explosions in the universe are all but invisible to even the largest telescopes on Earth. Astronomers have long wondered why they can't see these so-called dark-bursts. The answer, it turns out, is surprisingly simple. But only about half of these burst afterglows give off visible light. The rest remain hidden to optical telescopes.
Author:  Govert Schilling
Shows: 1519
15.12.2010 NASA: 2010 Meteorological Year Warmest Ever
The 2010 meteorological year, which ended on 30 November, was the warmest in NASA's 130-year record. The main driver for the increased warmth was the Arctic, where sea ice was absent during months when it should have normally covered the water. Water devoid of ice absorbs much more solar radiation.
Author:  Eli Kintisch
Shows: 2326
14.12.2010 Power Plants: Engineers Mimic Photosynthesis to Harvest Light Energy
Plants take advantage of quantum mechanics to harvest sunlight with near-perfect efficiency—though only roughly 2 percent of that captured sunlight ultimately gets stored as chemical energy. Now scientists are studying how this light-harvesting step ofphotosynthesis is optimized by nature to learn how to mimic it in engineered systems.
Author:  Alison Snyder
Shows: 1455
14.12.2010 Saturn's Rings Are Evidence of an Ancient Moon's Death Spiral
A scientific study posits that the beautiful rings surrounding the planet Saturn were actually created from the death throes of an ancient moon. The origin of Saturn's rings has been a mystery for a long time. As our probes have gather more information about the makeup of Saturn's moons, the evidence just didn't match up with the existing theories.
Shows: 1156
13.12.2010 How Swine Flu Killed the Healthy
The H1N1 pandemic virus that took the world by storm in 2009 may have had an unexpected accomplice. Some of the thousands who died may have been victims of their own immune systems. A protein called C4d usually helps destroy viruses, but researchers think that when it met the 2009 virus, it helped kill the host instead.
Author:  Kristen Minogue
Shows: 1074
09.12.2010 Optical wing generates lift from light
Physicists have demonstrated the optical analogue of an aerofoil — a 'lightfoil' that generates lift when passing through laser light. The demonstration, which comes more than a century after the development of the first aeroplanes, suggests that lightfoils could one day be used to manoeuvre objects in the vacuum of outer space using only the Sun's rays.
Author:  Jon Cartwright
Shows: 1073
08.12.2010 Mono Lake Bacterium Exhibits Exotic Arsenic-Driven Biological Activity
A bacterium isolated from California's Mono Lake can use arsenic, which is usually poisonous to life, as one of its key nutrient elements. The microbe can even take up arsenic into its biomolecules, replacing phosphorus as a structural building block in DNA and possibly in energy-carrying molecules.
Author:  John Matson
Shows: 1717
07.12.2010 The Curious Case of the Backwardly Aging Mouse
A research team has used genetic engineering to turn frail-looking mice into younger versions of themselves by stimulating the regeneration of certain tissues. The study helps explain why certain organs and tissues break down with age and, researchers say, offers hope that one day such age-related deterioration can be thwarted and even reversed.
Author:  Jennifer Carpenter
Shows: 2386
07.12.2010 Uncertain Future for Academy's Biology Experiment
Ask anyone familiar with the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) how the organization can be reformed and the discussion quickly turns to the efforts of Georgii Georgiev. Georgiev founded and runs the academy's Molecular and Cell Biology (MCB) program. Since 2003, MCB has awarded grants to groups based on their scientific track record. Between 2003 and 2009, the 100 groups chosen in the first funding round published 2000 papers in international peer-reviewed journals.
Author:  Daniel Clery
Shows: 1101
06.12.2010 Earth Oceans Were Homegrown
Where did Earth's oceans come from? Astronomers have long contended that icy comets and asteroids delivered the water for them during an epoch of heavy bombardment that ended about 3.9 billion years ago. But a new study suggests that Earth supplied its own water, leaching it from the rocks that formed the planet.
Author:  Bruce Dorminey
Shows: 1486
06.12.2010 Your Blood Holds Clues to Your Birthday
Researchers report in Current Biology that they can estimate someone's age—give or take about a decade—simply by analyzing a drop of blood. If validated, the new forensic technique could revive police investigations that have hit a dead end. The blood-age test relies on a peculiarity of T cells, immune cells that recognize and fight microbial invaders.
Author:  Jennifer Carpenter
Shows: 1123
02.12.2010 Shaving a Diamond
How do you cut the hardest thing on Earth? Jewelers know it can be done; they've been cutting diamonds for centuries with other diamonds. Materials scientists just didn't know why this worked. Now they do, thanks to a new computer simulation of two diamonds rubbing against each other under high pressure.
Shows: 1111
01.12.2010 Turn off TV and talk to babies
Infants gain little to nothing from watching popular educational videos, according to a new study, which finds they learn best with face-to-face interaction with parents and other familiar figures. After watching a video designed to teach vocabulary for a month, the infants did not know any more of the words than children with no exposure to the video.
Author:  Melanie Moran-Vanderbilt
Shows: 1107
30.11.2010 'Super-twisted' light swirls into view
Researchers at the University of Glasgow in the UK are the first to have created "super-twisted light" in the lab. The light could be used to detect minute quantities of biological molecules in solution. Indeed, super-twisted light could help scientists study the proteins responsible for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's.
Author:  Belle Dumé
Shows: 1262
29.11.2010 Truth in numbers: study pinpoints 'critical mass' for research success
Concentrating research funding on a small number of large universities is not the best way to maximise research quality. Research shows that with respect to the size of research groups in a particular discipline, there is an upper threshold or critical mass above which quality does not improve significantly.
Author:  Paul Jump
Shows: 1949
29.11.2010 Rethinking Brain Evolution in Insects
As surprising at it may seem, wasps, bees, and even ants have relatively large and complex brains. A new study indicates that these insects didn't grow big brains to cope with social living; they evolved them millions of years earlier when they were solitary parasites.
Author:  Jennifer Carpenter
Shows: 2331
25.11.2010 New Antarctic Research Plan for Russia
Russia is planning to launch five new polar research ships as part of a $975 million effort to reassert its presence in Antarctica over the next decade. According to a government strategy document that lays out priorities for development around the South Pole until 2020, Moscow will also reconstruct five research stations and three seasonal bases there.
Author:  Tom Parfitt
Shows: 1091
25.11.2010 U.S. Firms Up ‘Critical Habitat’ for Polar Bears
The Interior Department designated 187,157 square miles of Alaskan seas and lands as critical to the survival of the polar bear on Wednesday. More than 95 percent of it is offshore, including some areas that may have large undersea oil deposits. Two populations of polar bears roam widely in the area.
Author:  Felicity Barringer
Shows: 1571
24.11.2010 Neandertal Children Developed on the Fast Track
A new study of the fossilized teeth of eight Neandertal children finds that their permanent teeth grew significantly faster and erupted earlier than those of our own species, Homo sapiens. Taken with recent studies the new data suggest Neandertal kids may have reached adulthood a few years faster than modern human children do.
Author:  Ann Gibbons
Shows: 1197
24.11.2010 Hayabusa probe succeeded in returning asteroid dust to Earth
A spacecraft that traveled to a near-Earth asteroid and attempted the unprecedented feat of sampling its surface directly for examination back on Earth looks to have succeeded in its task. JAXA confirmed on November 16 that one of the particle collectors from its Hayabusa probe is indeed loaded with particulate matter from Asteroid Itokawa.
Author:  John Matson
Shows: 1095
23.11.2010 Brain Tumors Grow Their Own Blood Supply
Scientists have found that tumors have yet another trick up their sleeve: They can create their own blood supply by morphing into blood vessels. The observations, reported by two separate teams online today in Nature, could explain why drugs designed to choke off blood to brain tumors often fail.
Author:  Jocelyn Kaiser
Shows: 1683
22.11.2010 Caribbean Coral Die-off Worries Scientists
Unusually warm ocean temperatures in the summer and fall of 2005 caused a mass die-off of Caribbean corals that is the worst ever recorded there, according to new research published yesterday in the online journal PLoS ONE. Such events are also likely to become more common as global warming continues, concludes a team of 65 authors in 22 countries.
Author:  Lauren Morello
Shows: 2705
18.11.2010 MicroRNAs mediate an early birth
The molecular changes that trigger the uterus to start contracting at the beginning of childbirth have been worked out in detail. The research could eventually help the design of therapies to prevent premature birth, a significant cause of infant mortality and disability in developed countries.
Author:  Joseph Milton
Shows: 1197
18.11.2010 Cat Lap: Engineers Unravel the Mystery of How Felines Drink
One morning Roman Stocker was watching his cat, Cutta Cutta, drink, and began to wonder about the mechanism by which cats lap fluid into their mouths. After investigating the mechanism via high-speed videography, experimental simulation, visits to zoos and YouTube, researchers have produced a scientific description of cats' lapping mechanism.
Author:  John Matson
Shows: 1354
17.11.2010 Physicists Create Black Hole 'Light' in Lab
Thirty-six years ago, Stephen Hawking, the famed British theoretical physicist, predicted that black holes—from which no light should escape—could, paradoxically, emit light. No one has ever observed this "Hawking radiation," but now, a team of physicists may have created something very much like it in the lab.
Author:  Nathan Collins
Shows: 1188
17.11.2010 Fish Sleep Soundly in Mucous Cocoons
Even the ocean has bedbugs. Tiny blood-sucking crustaceans roam the seas, nipping at the scales of passing fish. But the parrotfish has evolved an unusual defense, the fish spend up to an hour spinning cocoons from their own mucous before they settle down to slumber for the night. Sleeping without protection were 80% more likely to be bitten.
Author:  Jennifer Carpenter
Shows: 1711
17.11.2010 Titanium foams replace injured bones
Flexible yet rigid like a human bone, and immediately capable of bearing loads: A new kind of implant, made of titanium foam, resembles the inside of a bone in terms of its structural configuration. Not only does this make it less stiff than conventional massive implants. It also promotes in growth into surrounding bones.
Shows: 1206
16.11.2010 Supercomputer Leaves Competition—And Users—in the Dust
China's new supercomputer,Tianhe-1A, is also the world's fastest, topping by 47% the current titleholder, the Jaguar XT5 system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee. But while Chinese officials are hailing the 2.5-petaflops supercomputer as an example of indigenous innovation, some Chinese researchers are troubled by another fact: The number of their colleagues able to tap even a thimbleful of the machine's power is surely minuscule.
Author:  Richard Stone and Hao Xin
Shows: 991
11.11.2010 Time for Your Skin Transfusion?
Researchers have coaxed adult skin cells to morph into a variety of blood cells. The scientists transformed the cells into blood without first "reprogramming" them into cells that resemble embryonic stem cells, suggesting that this transformation might not be necessary for making replacement tissues.
Author:  Mitch Leslie
Shows: 1234
11.11.2010 Mouse-Sized Primates Shed Light on Human Origins
Tiny primate teeth discovered in the Sahara Desert may illuminate our own humble beginnings as creatures the size of mice. The 39-million-year-old fossils belong to a subgroup of primates known as anthropoids, which includes monkeys, apes, and humans.
Author:  Ann Gibbons
Shows: 1631
10.11.2010 Things That Go Bump in the Night
Some people wake up at the drop of a pin; others snooze through their alarms every morning. Whether you can sleep through noise has a lot to do with the brain waves you produce while you sleep, according to a new study published in Current Biology. It might one day be possible to manipulate these waves to ensure a good night’s rest.
Author:  Melinda Wenner Moyer
Shows: 1146
10.11.2010 Celebrating World Science Day 2010: Science is UNESCO!
The UNESCO World Science Day for Peace and Development celebrated annually on 10 November is an occasion to celebrate SCIENCE. It is an opportunity to reflect upon the impact of science on society and its role in fostering international cooperation, peace, intercultural dialogue and the achievement of Millennium Development Goals.
Shows: 1295
09.11.2010 Networking for Dolphins
Like a marine mammal version of Facebook, male and female bottlenose dolphins spend their days courting friends and building alliances. Two new studies show just how important such friendships are to dolphins—and the role friends and alliances play in life's biggest game: the race to reproduce.
Author:  Virginia Morell
Shows: 1575
08.11.2010 Introducing the A-Train: Observing changes in key environmental phenomenon
The A-train formation of satellites barrels across the equator each day at around 1:30 p.m. local time each afternoon, giving the constellation its name; the "A" stands for "afternoon." Together, four of these satellites contain 15 separate scientific instruments that observe the same path of Earth's atmosphere and surface at a broad swath of wavelengths.
Author:  Adam Voiland
Shows: 1867
06.11.2010 Dad's Diet May Give Children Diabetes
A pregnant mom who regularly chows down on cheeseburgers probably isn't doing her baby any good; she may even predispose him to obesity, according to some studies. Now, researchers have found the first direct evidence that a father's diet, not just his genes, can increase his offspring's risk of diabetes and other diseases, at least in rats.
Author:  Sara Reardon
Shows: 1106
06.11.2010 Real-Time Holograms Beam Closer to Reality
Researchers in Arizona have devised a novel plastic film that can be used to generate holographic 3D images sent electronically from one location to another. The new telepresence setup doesn't work yet at full video speed—it can update images only every 2 seconds—but the technology opens the door for new applications.
Author:  Robert F. Service
Shows: 1108
05.11.2010 Comet Revealed as a Giant Dog Bone
At about 10 a.m. this morning, the EPOXI spacecraft screamed by the icy nucleus of comet Hartley 2 at 43,000 kilometers per hour. The fifth comet ever imaged so close up, Hartley 2 looks a bit like a dog bone, or a dumbbell, or, more technically, a highly elongated triaxial thingy.
Author:  Richard A. Kerr
Shows: 1214
03.11.2010 Review of Scientific Papers PM2010 World Congress in Florence, Italy, 10-14.10.2010. Iron Powder Manufacturing
Presented were 500 scientific papers, 1300 participants, 130 companies-exhibitors at the Congress. The author’s specialization is metal powder manufacturing and this short review is devoted to the most interesting papers of Section 4 Metal Powder Manufacturing. Taking into consideration that most USC members are scientists in biotechnologies, they would probably be interested in Section 9 PM Biomaterials (papers available upon request).
Author:  Dmytro Fedorov, USC Associated Member
Shows: 3833
02.11.2010 Giant Virus May Be Ocean's Largest
Most viruses travel light. They carry only a handful of genes for making new viruses, relying on their hosts' machinery to do the rest. But the newly identified virus, known as the Cafeteria roenbergensis virus, is a pack rat: It lugs around a staggering 730,000 base pairs of DNA, including more than 500 gene-like regions.
Author:  Helen Fields
Shows: 1173
02.11.2010 Something to Sniff at: A New Device That Could Help Severely Paralyzed People
A new device allows paralyzed people to communicate with their noses. Scientists in Israel see the ability as a way to assist severely paralyzed people. The researchers found that, by sniffing, people could quickly and accurately raise or lower their nasal pressure enough to trigger a command, similar to pressing a button.
Author:  Michele Solis
Shows: 1131
29.10.2010 Neutron Star Breaks Mass Record
A neutron star located 4000 light-years away has broken a record: It's nearly twice the mass of the sun and about 20% more massive than any neutron star measured before. Such stars form when massive stars collapse in supernovas, leaving behind a dense, neutron-rich core. The record breaker was named J1614-2230.
Author:  Yudhijit Bhattacharjee
Shows: 1153
29.10.2010 Headless Dragonfly Trapped in Time
Just in time for Halloween comes this gruesome tale. About 100 million years ago in a forest in Myanmar, a dragonfly lost its head to a hungry lizard. But the lizard didn't get away. The ghoulish moment—decapitated dragonfly and parts of the fleeing lizard—were captured and entombed in sticky tree sap.
Author:  Virginia Morell
Shows: 1135
28.10.2010 Solid Spheres: The most rigid nanoscale biological structures
The new nanospheres are formed in a self-organization process from very simple molecules based on aromatic dipeptides of the amino acid phenylalanine. They have a remarkably high elasticity modulus (275 GPa), which is higher than many metals and similar to the values found for steel.
Author:  Adrian Miller
Shows: 2039
28.10.2010 EMBO recognizes 63 researchers for advances in life sciences
The European Molecular Biology Organization (EMBO) today announced the recognition of outstanding research contributions by 63 life scientists from 14 countries. The researchers are awarded the life-long honour of EMBO membership, joining almost 1500 of the world’s leading molecular biologists.
Shows: 1453
27.10.2010 Your brain can’t get enough love
Falling in love is more scientific than we may think, according to a new study, which finds that it not only elicits the same euphoric feeling as using cocaine, but also affects intellectual areas of the brain. The love feeling affects sophisticated cognitive functions, such as mental representation, metaphors, and body image.
Author:  Sara Miller
Shows: 1044
27.10.2010 Our Ancient Ancestors Didn't Like It Hot
Contrary to what researchers long thought, our distant ancestors were not microbes that thrived in boiling hot springs or deep within giant ice sheets. A new evolutionary analysis of eukaryotes—the group of organisms that includes everything from mushrooms to humans—suggests that they descended from a group of microbes common in oceans and soils.
Author:  Carrie Arnold
Shows: 1387
25.10.2010 Climate Talks Still at Impasse, China Buffs Its Green Reputation
Delegates to a United Nations meeting herelast week made scant headway on a global strategy for reiningin greenhouse gas emissions. But amid the pessimism and recriminations, one nation won praise from observers for its efforts to boost energy efficiency and invest in green technologies: the host, China.
Author:  Richard Stone
Shows: 2168
22.10.2010 Why HIV/AIDS in Ukraine matters to us all
Ukraine is the country worst affected by HIV/AIDS in Europe. 440,000 people aged 15-49 are estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS. Three regions - Kyiv, Odessa and Donetsk - have recently crossed the threshold of 1% HIV infection among pregnant women, indicating the increasing generalisation of the epidemic.
Author:  Leigh Turner
Shows: 1121
22.10.2010 Keep Looking for That Extinct Mammal
Don't give up too soon. That's one piece of advice from a comprehensive analysis of missing and extinct mammalian species. The study shows that most of these species turned up alive after only three or more thorough field searches. All told, 67 species once considered missing have since been rediscovered.
Author:  Erik Stokstad
Shows: 1152
22.10.2010 End of the world? Not so fast
For nearly half a century, Maya scholars have relied on a fixed numerical value called the GMT constant as a means of correlating the dates on the ancient Maya calendar with those on the Gregorian calendar. Gerardo Aldana from UC Santa Barbara challenges the accepted Gregorian dates of all Classic Mayan historical events including the prophecied end of the world in 2012.
Author:  George Foulsham
Shows: 1205
20.10.2010 Natural Immunity: What Happens When We Simply See a Sick Person
Humans have a natural aversion to those who are ill. When we see others who seem under the weather, we experience a powerful emotional response—disgust—and do our best to avoid those who might be contagious. Now a study shows that seeing sick people can even prompt changes in the immune system.
Author:  Emily Anthes
Shows: 1629
19.10.2010 Giant penguin fossil found in Peru
Paleontologists have unearthed the 36-million-year-old fossil of an extinct penguin that was nearly five feet tall with reddish brown and grey feathers. The new species, Inkayacu paracasensis, or Water King, was about twice the size of an Emperor penguin, the largest penguin today.
Author:  Tim Green
Shows: 1400
18.10.2010 Boys need language for self-control
Developing language skills appears to be more important for boys than girls in helping them to develop self-control and, ultimately, succeed in school. Thus, more emphasis should be placed on encouraging boy toddlers to “use their words”—instead of unruly behavior—to solve problems, says Claire Vallotton, assistant professor of child development at MSU.
Author:  Andy Henion
Shows: 1108
14.10.2010 Folklore Confirmed: The Moon's Phase Affects Rainfall
Most studies on the weather and moon phases appeared in the 1960s. One of the results was that researchers detected more peaks in rainfall in the days after the full and new moons. Recently, three researchers decided to revive the issue when they stumbled across a link between moon phases and stream runoff while working on another project.
Author:  Kristen Minogue
Shows: 1457
11.10.2010 Just How Small Is the Proton?
Physicists have been scratching their heads since July, when a research team announced that the proton, the basic building block of matter, is 4 percent smaller than previously thought. The finding, published in Nature, clashes with theoretical predictions based on quantum electrodynamics, or QED, the fundamental theory of the electromagnetic force.
Author:  Davide Castelvecchi
Shows: 1059
08.10.2010 How Fish Oil Fights Inflammation
Omega-3 fatty acids, a main component of fish oil, have a reputation as potent anti-inflammatory agents. Now researchers think they know how the acids block this immune response. They've also found that omega-3s can help fight diabetes in obese mice, pointing the way to potential therapies in humans.
Author:  Cassandra Willyard
Shows: 1361
07.10.2010 British university scientists win Nobel prize for physics for discovery of graphene
Two British-based scientists have shared the Nobel Prize for physics for their discovery of a new material that is only an atom thick and which could change the future of electronics. Russian-born Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov, from Manchester University, won the prize for their 'groundbreaking experiments' with graphene.
Author:  Niall Firth
Shows: 3306
07.10.2010 3 share Nobel Prize in chemistry for finding new ways to bond carbon atoms
An American and two Japanese scientists won the Nobel Prize in chemistry Wednesday for finding new ways to bond carbon atoms together, methods now widely used to make medicines and in agriculture and electronics. It lets chemists join carbon atoms together, a key step in the process of building complex molecules.
Author:  Karl Ritter and Malin Rising
Shows: 1284
07.10.2010 British IVF pioneer Robert Edwards wins Nobel prize
British scientist Robert Edwards, who devised the fertility treatment IVF, has been awarded this year's Nobel prize for medicine. His efforts in the 1950s, 60s and 70s led to the birth of the world's first "test tube baby" in July 1978. Nearly four million babies have been born following IVF.
Author:  Michelle Roberts
Shows: 1113
06.10.2010 City dwellers evolved to fend off TB
Over time, populations in areas with long urban histories have developed genetic resistance to diseases like tuberculosis and leprosy. Scientists analyzed DNA samples from 17 different human populations living across Europe, Asia, and Africa and historical literature of first cities or urban settlements in these regions.
Author:  Clare Ryan
Shows: 1101
05.10.2010 Forget Mice, Elephants Really Hate Ants
A nose full of biting ants can really spoil your appetite. Especially if your nose is 3 meters long. African bush elephants (Loxodonta africana) avoid this discomfort by refusing to munch on acacia trees that house swarming ant colonies. Their aversion, a new study suggests, helps maintain the savanna's delicate balance between forest and prairie.
Author:  Elsa Youngsteadt
Shows: 1141
05.10.2010 Drahomanov: Ukraine’s attache in Europe
Without a doubt, Drahomanov occupies a place of honor in the pantheon of Ukrainian historians. Considering this scholar’s diversified public and cultural practices, as well as his research per se, his status as a Ukrainian intellectual, whose interest balanced precariously between science and politics, becomes perfectly understandable.
Author:  Oleksii Yas, Ph.D. (History) is a senior research fellow with the Institute of Ukrainian History at the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
Shows: 1280
01.10.2010 Florida Panthers Dodge Extinction
Fifteen years ago, Florida panthers were in a world of hurt. Only about two dozen of the beleaguered predators roamed in southern Florida, and because of inbreeding they suffered from various health problems. In 1995, biologists invigorated the panthers with some fresh blood, releasing eight cougars from Texas into south Florida.
Author:  Erik Stokstad
Shows: 1748
01.10.2010 Lasers control ‘Goldilocks’ molecules
Using lasers, physicists have been successful in cooling molecules down to temperatures near what’s known as absolute zero, about -460 degrees Fahrenheit. The development is a significant step toward the ultimate goal of using individual molecules as information bits in quantum computing.
Author:  Suzanne Taylor Muzzin
Shows: 2073
30.09.2010 Chew on this: 3 genes led to jaws
A half-billion years ago, jawless vertebrates lacked the ability to chew food. Instead, their heads consisted of a flexible, fused basket of cartilage. An international team of researchers has published evidence that three genes in jawless vertebrates might have been key to the development of jaws in higher vertebrates.
Author:  Jim Scott
Shows: 1126
28.09.2010 The Sun Can Lob Curveballs
Scientists have discovered that powerful bursts of magnetism emanating from sunspots near the poles of the sun can be arced back toward Earth by the solar magnetic field. The finding creates another potential headache for people who run or rely on GPS satellites, telecommunications networks, and power grids.
Author:  Phil Berardelli
Shows: 1020
28.09.2010 Brands that promise the world make consumers feel betrayed
The everyday scenes of angry consumers confronting frontline service staff over poor service are fuelled by the promises that marketers make to them, shows research from the University of Bath. Failure of brands to live up to the expectations marketers have created in the minds of consumers leads to their angry, abusive or resentful behaviour.
Shows: 1135
27.09.2010 The Dust That Drives Earthquakes
Scientists have uncovered several mechanisms that could make a fault lunge into earthquake mode. The heat from friction can melt its sides, or quartz grains can react with water to create a silica gel that slickens the rocks and makes them slide faster. Researchers took a closer look at fault gouge, the fine powder fault slabs create as they grind against each other.
Author:  Kristen Minogue
Shows: 1266
23.09.2010 Say Goodbye to Sunspots?
Scientists studying sunspots for the past 2 decades have concluded that the magnetic field that triggers their formation has been steadily declining. If the current trend continues, by 2016 the sun's face may become spotless and remain that way for decades—a phenomenon that in the 17th century coincided with a prolonged period of cooling on Earth.
Author:  Phil Berardelli
Shows: 1348
22.09.2010 Plants Near Chernobyl Appear to Grow a Shield
In April 1986, a nuclear reactor at the Chernobyl power plant in Ukraine exploded and sent radioactive particles flying through the air, infiltrating the surrounding soil. Despite the colossal disaster, some plants in the area seem to have adapted well, flourishing in the contaminated soil.
Author:  SINDYA N. BHANOO
Shows: 1550
22.09.2010 An undamaged Amazon produces its own clouds and rain
Studying the atmospheric aerosol particles, which impact cloud formation and particles, above a pristine forests, researchers discovered that when left alone the Amazon acts as its own 'bioreactor': clouds and precipitation are produced by the abundance of plant materials.
Author:  Jeremy Hance
Shows: 2751
21.09.2010 Cracking the chemistry of organic batteries
The discovery of a new way to pass electrons back and forth between two molecules could push forward development of organic batteries—lightweight energy storage devices that work without the need for toxic heavy metals. The research is also a necessary step toward creating artificial photosynthesis, where fuel could be generated directly from the sun.
Shows: 1345
21.09.2010 Nanotubes help cells pass messages
Researchers have discovered a means of cell communication that may illuminate events ranging from embryo development to brain activity. Electrical signals can be transmitted between distant cells by means of nanotubes--ultrathin cables containing actin proteins--and "gap junctions" are involved in the process.
Author:  Amy Maxmen
Shows: 2156
20.09.2010 The beauty of flock patterns: A model system for group behavior of nanomachines
For the casual observer it is fascinating to watch the orderly and seemingly choreographed motion of hundreds or even thousands of fish, birds or insects. However, the formation and the manifold motion patterns of such flocks raise numerous questions fundamental to the understanding of complex systems.
Shows: 1242
20.09.2010 Peer networking: boys vs. girls
Researchers examined peer relationships of third- through eighth-grade students at a Chicago school and found that girls in the younger grades did, indeed, tend to flock together in smaller, more intimate groups than boys. But that difference disappeared by the eighth grade.
Shows: 1820
17.09.2010 Worms for brains: Can genes point the way to the cerebral cortex's common ancestor with marine annelids?
Marine worms might seem like lowly, slow-witted creatures, but new gene mapping shows that we might share an ancient brainy ancestor with them. Human cognition is largely rooted in the cerebral cortex and we share the basic evolutionary underpinnings of our big brains with other vertebrates, which have a structure known as the pallium.
Author:  Katherine Harmon
Shows: 1133
16.09.2010 Selfishness can sometimes help the common good
Scientists have overturned the conventional wisdom that cooperation is essential for the well-being of the whole population, finding proof that slackers can sometimes help the common good. The researchers studied populations of yeast and found that a mixture of ‘co-operators’ and ‘cheats’ grew faster than a more utopian one of only ‘co-operators’.
Shows: 1097
15.09.2010 How to think yourself out of isolation
Changing how a person perceives and thinks about others is the most effective intervention for loneliness, according to a recent research review. The findings may help physicians and psychologists develop better treatments for loneliness, a known risk factor for heart disease and other health problems.
Author:  Robert Mitchum
Shows: 1035
13.09.2010 Scientists develop touch-sensitive "artificial skin"
Scientists from the University of California have used nanotechnology to develop an artificial skin that could eventually give the sense of touch back to people who have lost their limbs. Dubbed the e-skin, it is built from tiny nanowires made out of artificial material and its creators say it mimics the sensitivity of human touch.
Author:  Michael Edwards
Shows: 1136
13.09.2010 In universe’s beginning, chaos reigned
A longstanding problem in physics has been to determine whether chaos is absolute or relative in systems governed by general relativity, where the time itself is relative. A new mathematical argument proves earlier conjecture that the expansion of the universe at the time of the big bang was highly chaotic.
Shows: 1143
13.09.2010 Ancient beer brewed to include antibiotic
A chemical analysis of the bones of ancient Nubians shows that they were regularly consuming tetracycline, most likely in their beer. The finding is the strongest evidence yet that the art of making antibiotics, which officially dates to the discovery of penicillin in 1928, was common practice nearly 2,000 years ago.
Shows: 1117
10.09.2010 NASA panel weighs asteroid danger
A NASA panel is wrestling with a question, which is growing more pertinent as scientists' ability to find asteroids that pose a potential risk, termed near-Earth objects (NEOs), outstrips their capacity to track them accurately. The panel may  recommend the launch of a survey telescope into a solar orbit similar to that of Venus.
Author:  Eugenie Samuel Reich
Shows: 1307
10.09.2010 UCSF unveils model for implantable artificial kidney to replace dialysis
UCSF researchers today unveiled a prototype model of the first implantable artificial kidney, in a development that one day could eliminate the need for dialysis. The device would include thousands of microscopic filters as well as a bioreactor to mimic the metabolic and water-balancing roles of a real kidney.
Shows: 1746
09.09.2010 Making climate data free for all
Meteorologists are meeting this week to hammer out a solution to one of the thorniest problems in climate science: how to make raw climate data freely available to all. It follows years of discussion within the climate-science community, which wants to draw disparate climate data together into a single, comprehensive repository to streamline research.
Author:  Rhiannon Smith
Shows: 1997
09.09.2010 Tiny 'Flying Saucers' Could Save Earth From Global Warming
Using a trick of sunlight itself, tiny metallic disks could be levitated to the stratosphere where they would shade Earth's surface and counteract the effects of global warming, a new paper proposes. But even the scientist who dreamed up the idea says the little saucers should be used only as a last resort.
Author:  Eli Kintisch
Shows: 2256
08.09.2010 Solid Gold, Thanks to Bacteria
Thin biofilm, found by researchers evevloping gold grains in a Queensland mine, dissolves the gold on contact, creating toxic gold ions that can break down the bacteria's cell walls. But the bacteria fight back by transforming the ions into metallic gold nanoparticles that later coalesce into lace-like crystals across the surface.
Shows: 1235
06.09.2010 Accepted Notion of Mars as Lifeless Is Challenged
For all the triumph of NASA’s 1976 Viking mission, there was one major disappointment: The landers failed to find carbon-based molecules that could serve as the building blocks of life. Now, some scientists say that such building blocks were indeed in the soil, but that they were inadvertently destroyed before they could be detected.
Author:  KENNETH CHANG
Shows: 1159
06.09.2010 The skin disease that cures itself
Cells that can get the better of a rare skin disorder have helped scientists to explain the disease. Curiously, some patients' cells can eliminate the disease-causing mutation that underlies ichthyosis, and as a result have healthy patches of skin speckled all over their bodies.
Author:  Ewen Callaway
Shows: 2194
06.09.2010 What makes us happy can make us sad
Most of us spend much of our time and effort focused on individual achievements such as work, hobbies, and schooling. However this research suggests that the events that end up being most important in our lives, the events that bring us the most happiness and also carry the potential for the most pain, are social events.
Shows: 1091
03.09.2010 Which Ray?: Conflicting Data on High-Energy Cosmic Rays Leave Their Source--or Sources--Unresolved
Nature certainly has a way of one-upping the fruits of human ingenuity. Extreme astrophysical objects have long been known to accelerate the particles that make up cosmic rays to whopping energies that make the Large Hadron Collider look like a child's slingshot. After striking the atmosphere, rays send forth a shower of less energetic secondary particles. From these secondary showers, astrophysicists try to determine the specific source of these cosmic speed freaks.
Author:  John Matson
Shows: 1187
02.09.2010 A Few Drug-Resistant Bacteria May Keep the Whole Colony Alive
Drug-resistant mutant bacteria produce compounds called indoles that can protect large numbers of nonresistant colony mates. New treatment strategies should follow. Just a few resistant mutants can protect large numbers of normal bacteria that would have been thought to be susceptible to the drug therapy.
Author:  Steve Mirsky
Shows: 1368
31.08.2010 These Materials Can't Be Stretched Thin
Materials that grows fatter when stretched and thinner when released are called auxetics, but scientists haven't totally figured out how they work. A new mathematical model may help. Researchers say the model can accurately predict the properties of these materials, opening the way for a number of applications
Author:  Phil Berardelli
Shows: 1232
30.08.2010 Caterpillars Sign Their Own Death Warrants
When a tobacco plant is attacked by moth cateripllars it sends out a chemical distress call to another insect species called "big-eyed bugs," which soon arrive on the scene to attack them. Now, researchers have discovered that the alarm signal goes out at lightning speed—and in a strange twist, the caterpillars appear to help make the call.
Author:  Helen Fields
Shows: 1820
27.08.2010 Iceman May Have Been Buried in a Ceremony
Researchers have long thought that Ötzi, the 5000-year-old Iceman found in the Alps in 1991, died wounded and alone, perhaps the victim of a raging blizzard. But a provocative new paper tells a radically different story. The first comprehensive map of Ötzi’s body and belongings suggests he was ceremoniously buried by his fellows.
Author:  Andrew Lawler
Shows: 1119
27.08.2010 Roots of world poverty misunderstood
Few people worldwide become or remain poor because of alcoholism, drug use, or idleness, says Anirudh Krishna. "Laziness is not particularly a trait of those who are poor." What’s more common is people succumbing to dangers that are largely preventable. Too much focus is spent on finding new ways to lift people out of poverty instead of coming to terms with why they became poor in the first place, according to his new book.
Shows: 1490
26.08.2010 Giving Birth, Asteroid Style
Calling asteroids rocky is a misnomer. Recent space missions have shown them to be surprisingly loose agglomerations of pebbles that can barely hold themselves together gravitationally. And that may explain the phenomenon of asteroid pairs. Аsteroids can literally spin themselves apart, as in the simulations above, essentially giving birth.
Shows: 1527
26.08.2010 Neighboring Solar System Resembles Ours
Astronomers have found the most populous alien solar system yet—and it looks a bit like ours. In a study published this month in Astronomy & Astrophysics, researchers say they have confirmed five new planets orbiting HD 10180, a star located only 127 light-years away in the southern constellation Hydrus.
Shows: 1654
26.08.2010 50 Years Ago: Photographs of an Antarctic Odyssey
In 1959, Robert A. McCabe ventured to Antarctica as a freelance photojournalist. For the 100th anniversary of Roald Amundsen’s and Robert Falcon Scott’s race to the South Pole, he has published a book of photographs and journal entries called “DeepFreeze! A Photographer’s Antarctic Odyssey in the Year 1959.”
Shows: 2666
19.08.2010 Scientists Map Epigenetic Changes During Blood Cell Differentiation (Potential Application for Stem Cell Therapies)
Having charted the occurrence of a common chemical change that takes place while stem cells decide their fates and progress from precursor to progeny, a Johns Hopkins-led team of scientists has produced the first-ever epigenetic landscape map for tissue differentiation.
Shows: 3668
19.08.2010 Sharing of Data Leads to Progress on Alzheimer’s
In 2003, a group of scientists and executives from the NIH, FDA, the drug and medical-imaging industries, universities and nonprofit groups joined in a project that experts say had no precedent: a collaborative effort to find the biological markers that show the progression of Alzheimer’s disease in the human brain. Now, the effort is bearing fruit with a wealth of recent scientific papers on the early diagnosis of Alzheimer’s.
Author:  GINA KOLATA
Shows: 1196
17.08.2010 Notes from Underground
A common perception of Russian culture has fueled speculation about an underlying symbiosis between a predisposition to focus on negative feelings or experiences and a tendency toward depression. Grossmann and Kross have examined this purported linkage by contrasting self-reflective measures in Russians and Americans.
Author:  Gilbert Chin
Shows: 1316
17.08.2010 Google Earth zooms in on dangerous climate change
A new interactive Google Earth map showing the impacts of a 4 °C warmer world was launched today by the Government, in partnership with the Met Office. Pushing the barriers with Google Earth technology, the multi platform, interactive map highlights some of the changes that may occur if the global average temperature rises by 4 °C above the pre-industrial climate average. The UK Government is committed to keeping global temperatures as low as practical to avoid dangerous levels of climate change.
Shows: 2591
16.08.2010 Fears rise over fires in Chernobyl forests
Experts say the harm caused by the radioactive fallout from a large forest fire in the Chornobyl zone would be limited. As fires burn across Ukraine amid a heat wave, international and local experts have warned of the high risk of a wildfire in the highly radioactive 30-kilometer radius around the closed nuclear power plant.
Author:  Graham Stack
Shows: 1412
13.08.2010 How Tiny Drips Can Crumble a Building
It doesn't take a flood to destroy a building. Mere moisture over many years can do the same. Now, materials scientists have found a way to predict how moisture works its way through a given building and location, something that should lead to better assessments of the health of historic structures.
Author:  Phil Berardelli
Shows: 1127
13.08.2010 How Locusts Are Like Magnets
A flock of pigeons swooping through a city and a swarm of hungry locusts descending on a field may have more in common than you think. According to soon-to-be-published research in Physical Review E, the same math may describe the way both types of critters switch directions in a group.
Shows: 1886
12.08.2010 New model gives quantum theory a shove
Physicists recently developed a new theoretical model to explain how, under certain rare conditions, more than one electron can simultaneously occupy the same quantum state. Their model may help explain how matter behaves at the edges of black holes and contribute to the ongoing scientific quest for a unified theory of quantum gravity.
Shows: 1266
10.08.2010 In a Video Game, Tackling the Complexities of Protein Folding
In a match that pitted video game players against the best known computer program designed for the task, the gamers outperformed the software in figuring out how 10 proteins fold into their three-dimensional configurations. In addition to the acuity of human pattern-recognition skills, the players outperformed the best software tools in other ways as well.
Author:  JOHN MARKOFF
Shows: 1308
10.08.2010 The antilaser: Physicists conceive a "perfect absorber"
Fifty years after physicists invented the laser, scientists have conceived its opposite — the “antilaser.” No one has yet reported building an antilaser, but a theoretical description of one appears in a paper published in Physical Review Letters. The antilaser could be useful one day, for instance in new types of optical switches for computers.

Shows: 1054
09.08.2010 Building a Framework to Read Animal Emotion
Pet owners might like to think they can judge the moods of their cats or dogs with ease, but finding true scientific methods to evaluate animal emotion is difficult. Because it is difficult to otherwise judge an animal’s emotional state, the researchers devised a model that correlates emotional state to decision making.
Author:  SINDYA N. BHANOO
Shows: 1854
06.08.2010 All (Submerged) Creatures Big and Small: A Census Catalogues the World's Marine Species
The Census of Marine Life, an ambitious project to catalogue sea life, was prompted by estimates that science had sampled marine biota in only 0.1 percent of the volume of the world's oceans. The results compiled from this global collaboration of more than 2,700 scientists from 80 nations will be released in October.
Shows: 2388
04.08.2010 The downside of high heels
Stilettos, wedges, and pumps may be fashionable, but prolonged wearing of and walking in high heels can contribute to joint degeneration and knee osteoarthritis, a new study suggests. ”Based on this information, wearing high heels puts individuals at greater risk for developing osteoarthritis. And it seems to be that the higher the heel height, the greater the risk.”
Shows: 1135
04.08.2010 'Spontaneous generation' of prions observed
Metal wires 'catalyse' appearance of rogue proteins from healthy brain tissue. After an epic series of experiments, a group of researchers has observed and reproduced what could be the spontaneous generation of prions — rogue misfolded proteins that have been implicated in the destruction of the central nervous system.
Author:  Daniel Cressey
Shows: 2306
02.08.2010 British scientists find the world's sixth-largest river at the bottom of the Black Sea
A river discovered underneath the Black Sea is up to 115ft deep in places and more than half a mile wide. If found on land, scientists estimate the waterway would be the world's sixth largest river in terms of the amount of water flowing through it.
Shows: 1345
30.07.2010 Thinnest metallic lines in the world speeds up miniaturisation of electronic devices
The thinnest, smoothest metallic lines in the world helps speed up miniaturisation of electronic devices. New method creates super-thin, high integrity, continuous metal lines that surpass today’s semiconductor industry requirements. At line widths of just 7 nm, their line width roughness, which are the variations in thickness along the line itself, stands at 2.9 nm.
Shows: 1092
29.07.2010 Sequence DNA using graphene nanopores
Researchers have developed a new, carbon-based nanoscale platform to electrically detect single DNA molecules. Using electric fields, the tiny DNA strands are pushed through nanoscale-sized pores in a graphene nanopore platform that ultimately may be important for fast electronic sequencing of the four chemical bases of DNA based on their unique electrical signature.
Shows: 1598
27.07.2010 The Core of Neptune, Here on Earth
Strange things are probably happening to the water deep inside Neptune and Uranus. The ultrahigh temperatures and pressures may be forcing it into new phases beyond the standard solid, liquid, and gas. Since we can't visit those planets to figure out what's really going on, an international team of researchers plans to create similar conditions here on Earth.
Shows: 1069
27.07.2010 Pristine Impact Crater Discovered in Egypt Desert
What may be the best-preserved small impact crater ever seen on Earth has been discovered in the remote Egyptian desert, scientists announced Thursday. Based on the size and characteristics of the bowl-shaped crater, the researchers think it was caused by the impact of an iron meteorite about 4.3 feet (1.3 m.) in diameter traveling at 7,920 mph (11,732 kph).
Shows: 1080
27.07.2010 Vienna 2010 closes with a renewed commitment for securing universal access to HIV prevention, care, treatment and support
The XVIII International AIDS Conference ended today after a week of intense dialogue involving 19,300 people from 193 countries engaged in the global AIDS response. Delegates and organizers depart Vienna – where the conference opened 18 July under the theme of Rights Here, Right Now – with a renewed commitment to push for securing universal access to HIV prevention, care, treatment and support.
Shows: 1105
23.07.2010 The Promise Of A Pain Free Delivery For The Needle-Phobic
Researchers at Emory University and engineers at the Georgia Institute of Technology successfully immunized mice using a vaccine patch made up of 100 “microneedles” containing a freeze dried version of the flu vaccine that dissolves into the skin together with the needles in just a few minutes.
Shows: 1235
22.07.2010 Cigarette Smoke Jolts Hundreds of Genes, Researchers Say
Doctors have long noticed a link between smoking and cancers found in organs beside the lungs, including kidney, colon and bladder cancers. Now, a new study shows lighting up a cigarette changes a person's gene activity across the body. The findings may be a clue to why smoking affects overall health - from heart disease to combating infections.
Author:  Lauren Cox
Shows: 1355
21.07.2010 Hundreds of dead penguins dot Brazil's beaches
Hundreds of penguins that apparently starved to death are washing up on the beaches of Brazil. Scientists are investigating whether strong currents and colder-than-normal waters have hurt populations of the species that make up the penguins' diet, or whether human activity may be playing a role.
Shows: 1680
21.07.2010 Elephant tooth fossil found in Brazil
Scientists in Brazil say a fossil of an elephant's tooth found in the Amazon jungle proves the presence of pachyderms in South America some 45,000 years ago, a report said on Tuesday. Previous evidence showed that elephants had reached Costa Rica, in Central America, but no further south.
Shows: 1749
20.07.2010 Meerkats Have Their Own Traditions
In January, the height of summer in the Kalahari Desert, some meerkats poke their noses out of their burrows as early as 5 a.m. Other groups sleep up to an hour later. Meerkats move between groups, so the differences aren't genetic, which is further evidence, the team says, that nonhumans can have traditions, too.
Shows: 2315
13.07.2010 Global population study launched by Royal Society
The UK's Royal Society is launching a major study into human population growth and how it may affect social and economic development in coming decades. The world's population has risen from two billion in 1930 to 6.8 billion now, with nine billion projected by 2050. It is led by Nobel laureate Sir John Sulston of Human Genome Project fame.
Shows: 2405
12.07.2010 Marmot meltdown averted: Vancouver Island species on the brink of extinction regaining social bonds
Biologists in Canada are encouraged that critically endangered Vancouver Island marmots (Marmota vancouverensis) are once again learning how to be marmots—a tough task since the species's population had crashed so far that the animals almost lost the knowledge of how to exist as a society.
Author:  John Platt
Shows: 1717
09.07.2010 A Color-Coded Guide to the Brain
A new brain mapping technique uses viruses to illuminate neurons in beautiful colors, and can give us detailed visuals of how information travels through the brain. A team at Princeton led by Lynn Enquist is pioneering a way to use viruses to target specific neurons and make them glow in bright colors when stimulated by a laser.
Shows: 2474
07.07.2010 Face to Face With Human Mobility Research
The 2009 H1N1 flu pandemic attracted interest from the growing number of scientists studying how people move and interact with one another. "It's our mobility patterns that spread epidemics," notes Alessandro Vespignani, who moderated an ESOF session today on how probing human movement can elucidate the dynamics of infectious diseases.
Author:  John Travis
Shows: 1101
05.07.2010 The right kind of elitism: National academies
National academies can be pivotal in speaking up for science, both to those in power and to the public. Britain's Royal Society is 350 years old this year, and stands today as a relatively successful model of what an independent national academy can achieve, having made itself both highly regarded in the corridors of power and prominent in public debates on major science-related issues.
Shows: 1225
01.07.2010 Giant Magma Blobs Ripple Earth's Surface
Hot blobs of magma - the searing liquid rock beneath the Earth's crust - can spread slow-moving ripples that soar hundreds of meters high across the Earth's surface, a new study suggests. This phenomenon, may shed light on relatively rapid unexplained pre-historical sea level rises that are one of geology's oldest mysteries.
Shows: 1165
30.06.2010 The Deepwater Horizon oil spill puts ocean-current modelling to the test
A research ocean circulation model is being tested to the limit by the BP spill. Researchers examine satellite images of the spill to figure out where the oil is, on the basis of that location, they deploy numerical particles that trace the oil in the simulations, and then watch how the currents move the particles. They validate their predictions using physical data from satellite and oceanographic sensors.
Author:  Janet Fang
Shows: 1143
29.06.2010 A pandemic of hindsight? N1H1 influenza
We must learn lessons from the handling of the flu pandemic to improve future research and public-health responses to emerging diseases, but retrospective hindsight and recriminations are not the answer. This week, the Council of Europe's parliamentary assembly is scheduled to vote on a resolution expressing alarm over WHO's handling of the H1N1 pandemic.
Shows: 1208
25.06.2010 'Choosy' women set high standards for sperm
The female reproductive system may be rejecting sperm it doesn't find good enough to create a pregnancy. University of Adelaide Professor Sarah Robertson, who is leading the research, says tests discovered that females have an in-built quality control system, that assesses if the male partner is quality enough to invest her reproductive energy in. "Some combinations of men and women might not be compatible and it's possible that the immune systems of some women aren't responding correctly to their partner's triggering molecules."
Author:  Cassie White
Shows: 1263
24.06.2010 Survival rate up to 100% for late stage treatment of Anthrax infections
IQ Therapeutics B.V., Groningen, the Netherlands, announced this week that in collaboration with the University of Texas Medical Branch it has obtained outstanding results for the treatment of inhalation anthrax. In a rabbit model up to 100% survival could be achieved with extended time to treatment (48 hours post infection) with a combination of two specific monoclonal antibodies.
Shows: 1198
23.06.2010 New world Helicobacter pylori genome sequenced, dynamics of inflammation-related genes revealed
An international team of researchers led by scientists at the Virginia Bioinformatics Institute (VBI) at Virginia Tech have sequenced the genome of an Amerindian strain of the gastric bug Helicobacter pylori, confirming the out-of-Africa migration of this bacterial stowaway to the New World.
Shows: 1247
22.06.2010 Proposed kill quotas for whales too high: scientists
The International Whaling Commission starts a key meeting Monday to debate catch quotas which could replace a moratorium on hunting though a key scientific committee will say the catch limits are too high, sources said. The IWC's own scientific committee is set to say that the proposed numbers are not sustainable.
Author:  Marlowe Hood (AFP)
Shows: 1722
22.06.2010 New technique transforms iPS cells into natural tumor killers
A technique for producing natural killer T (NKT) cells, known for their role in suppressing tumor growth, has been successfully demonstrated for the first time using induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. The research team used mature NKT cells that had already undergone gene rearrangement to derive their iPS cells.
Shows: 1376
21.06.2010 Earth's Colorful Atmospheric Layers Photographed from Space
A spectacular image taken by astronauts on the International Space Station shows the various layers of Earth's atmosphere during sunset over the Indian Ocean. A brilliant sequence of colors denotes each of the layers of Earth's atmosphere, which are visible here because the picture was taken while the space station had an edge-on, or limb, view of the Earth. From this vantage point, the Earth's curvature can also be made out.
Shows: 2749
18.06.2010 Flower power makes tropics cooler, wetter
The world is a cooler, wetter place because of flowering plants, according to new climate simulation results published in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B. The effect is especially pronounced in the Amazon basin, where replacing flowering plants with non-flowering varieties would result in an 80 percent decrease in the area covered by ever-wet rainforest. The simulations demonstrate the importance of flowering-plant physiology to climate regulation.
Shows: 1817
17.06.2010 World's biggest radiotelescope launched in Netherlands
Scientists in the Netherlands unveiled the largest radiotelescope in the world on Saturday, saying it was capable of detecting faint signals from almost as far back as the Big Bang. The LOFAR (LOw Frequency ARray) consists of 25,000 small antennas measuring between 50 centimetres and two metres across, instead of a traditional large dish.
Shows: 1181
16.06.2010 US experiment hints at 'multiple God particles'
Finding the Higgs boson is the primary aim of the £6bn ($10bn) Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiment near Geneva. But recent results from the LHC's US rival suggest physicists could be hunting five particles, not one. The data may point to new laws of physics beyond the current accepted theory - known as the Standard Model.
Author:  Paul Rincon
Shows: 1112
16.06.2010 Better Rice Through Fungi
More than 80% of plant species make friends with a common fungus. In return for sugar, the fungus helps the plants extract nutrients from the soil. But rice plants, a primary food source for billions of people, don’t have this special relationship. A new study suggests that the fungus will bond with rice, increasing the plant's growth rate by up to five times.
Author:  Kelli Whitlock Burton
Shows: 1222
15.06.2010 Depth of Himalayan Mountain Roots Revealed
An epic collision between two ancient continents pushed the Himalayas up from the Earth's surface. A new study reveals how deep the unseen wreckage penetrated underground. Researchers cracked open rocks from the mountain range and uncovered a mineral called majorite that is formed at least 125 miles (200 km) below the Earth's surface.
Author:  Brett Israel
Shows: 1100
15.06.2010 Ostriches: ancient flying birds began to forage on ground, lost the ability to fly over time
Scientists had long thought the world's largest flightless birds, the ratites shared a common flightless ancestor. Genetic analysis done in 2008 suggested that flightless birds actually shared a common flying ancestor. And new genetic research confirms that view and suggests a reason why the birds became grounded independently after dispersing geographically.
Author:  Charles Q. Choi
Shows: 2589
15.06.2010 The Brilliant Wings of Butterflies
Butterflies owe their brilliant looks to photonic nanostructures—crystalline structures in their wings that reflect light and repeat every few nanometers. Now scientists have figured out how these structures create such vivid colors. Engineers can use these unique light reflecting properties to produce more efficient solar cells and even new cosmetics and paints.
Shows: 2019
14.06.2010 Archival Ukrainica in Canada reference book published (19 April 2010)
A reference book entitled "Archival Ukrainica in Canada" was presented at the Canadian Embassy in Ukraine on April 19, 2010. The reference book contains the information about documents on Ukrainian cultural heritage and documents of foreign origin stored in the archives, museums and libraries of Canada that are related to the history of Ukraine and Ukrainians.
Shows: 1302
11.06.2010 Snakes in mysterious global decline
Researchers examined records for 17 snake populations covering eight species over the last few decades, and found most had declined markedly. For reasons that are not entirely clear, some populations shrank in number abruptly around 1998. Writing in the journal Biology Letters, the researchers describe the findings as "alarming."
Author:  Richard Black
Shows: 1529
11.06.2010 Mystery of Saturn's midget moons cracked
For decades, researchers have puzzled over the origin of Saturn's baby moons. According to conventional models, these moons are so small that collisions with comets should have blown them to pieces long ago. Now a group of researchers in France and Britain think they have the answer — and it lies in the planet's icy rings.
Author:  Jon Cartwright
Shows: 1148
11.06.2010 Where Did the Flu Go? It's Hiding
The influenza virus is known to evolve rapidly, adapting to new hosts and swapping genes to become more virulent. A genetic analysis reveals that in the United States, not all strains of influenza die off at the end of winter. Some move to South America, and some migrate even farther.
Shows: 1155
09.06.2010 Renewing the Post-Soviet Steppe
Ukraine's steppe has largely disappeared, but Ukrainian researchers, conservationists, and farmers are devising plans to restore the vital grasslandswhile making money. Bringing back Ukraine's steppe faces obstacles, including competing conservation interests and widespread public disinterest. "People don't understand that the steppe is important for our country," says Tatiana Sova, director of steppe reserves in the Luhansk region.
Author:  Daniel Charles
Shows: 1495
04.06.2010 520-Day Mars Flight Simulation Begins
An international team of researchers climbed into a set of windowless steel capsules Thursday to start a 520-day simulation of a flight to Mars intended to help real space crews of the future cope with the confinement, stress and fatigue of interplanetary travel. The six-member, all-male crew of three Russians, a Frenchman, an Italian-Colombian and a Chinese will follow a tight regimen of experiments and exercise under video surveillance.
Shows: 1200
01.06.2010 Discovery of stem cell illuminates human brain evolution, points to therapies
UCSF scientists have discovered a new stem cell in the developing human brain. The cell produces nerve cells that help form the neocortex – the site of higher cognitive function—and likely accounts for the dramatic expansion of the region in the lineages that lead to man, the researchers say. 
Author:  Jennifer O’Brien
Shows: 1324
01.06.2010 Parasite plants rob genes from their hosts
A research team at the RIKEN Plant Science Center, and the Department of Biological Sciences at the University of Tokyo, has uncovered the first ever evidence of nuclear gene transfer from host to parasite plant species. The discovery, reported in Science this week, hints at a greater role for horizontal gene transfer in plant evolution.
Shows: 2741
28.05.2010 Genome comparison tools found to be susceptible to slip-ups
The tools used to align genomes from different species have serious quality-control issues, according to a study published online this week in the journal Nature Biotechnology. "We discovered that there's a disturbingly low level of agreement between genome alignments produced by different tools," said corresponding author Martin Tompa, a UW professor of computer science and engineering and of genome sciences. "What this should suggest to biologists is that they should be very cautious about trusting these alignments in their entirety."
Author:  Hannah Hickey
Shows: 1334
27.05.2010 A Crack in the Mirror Neuron Hypothesis of Autism
Brain cells thought to underlie our ability to understand one another work just fine in people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), according to the authors of a controversial new study. Other researchers had proposed that these cells, called mirror neurons, malfunction in people with ASD, disrupting their ability to understand what someone else is experiencing. If the results hold up, researchers will need another way to explain the social deficits that characterize the disorder.
Author:  Dan Ferber
Shows: 2217
26.05.2010 BP oil spill reaches delicate wetlands of Louisiana
Wildlife under serious threat as thick oil reaches coastal sanctuaries in Louisiana. Thick sheets of crude oil spread through the delicate wetlands of Louisiana today, as the BP oil spill continued to threaten the American coastline.
Shows: 1187
25.05.2010 Hubble catches planet being devoured by its star
The Hubble space telescope has discovered a planet in our galaxy in the process of being devoured by the star that it orbits, according to a paper published in The Astrophysical Journal Letters. Using a new instrument called the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph that was installed on Hubble in 2009, the researchers observed how the planet was whipped into an elongated shape by gravitational forces.
Shows: 1163
19.05.2010 Computer Program Self-Discovers Laws of Physics
In just over a day, a powerful computer program accomplished a feat that took physicists centuries to complete: extrapolating the laws of motion from a pendulum’s swings. Developed by Cornell researchers, the program deduced the natural laws without a shred of knowledge about physics or geometry.
Author:  Brandon Keim
Shows: 1347
18.05.2010 Monkeys' art of war has lessons for human conflict
Studying animal conflicts could help shed light on human wars – that is the hope from a study of the choices that monkeys make when deciding to fight or remain at peace. To answer this question Flack and colleagues decided to look for strategies suggested by the data alone. They made no assumption about the reasons for the monkeys' behaviour and looked only at patterns of behaviour leading up to fights.
Author:  Jim Giles
Shows: 1169
18.05.2010 The real Avatar: body transfer turns men into girls
Last time you checked you were a conservatively dressed, 28-year-old man. But you look down and notice that you now have the legs of a 10-year-old girl and appear to be wearing a skirt. This experience – facilitated by a virtual-reality headset and some brief arm-stroking – is enough to make men in their mid-20s react as if this new body is their own. They feel that way even when they subsequently move outside the girl's perspective and watch her being attacked.
Author:  Wendy Zukerman
Shows: 1295
17.05.2010 X-Ray Vision, Without the Radiation
X-ray-like imaging without the harmful radiation and cell phones with more bandwidth are closer to reality now that researchers have developed a novel type of lens that works with terahertz frequencies. The new lens is a metamaterial, an artificial material with a structure made from many tiny parts, and it could drastically expand what lenses can do.
Author:  Kim Krieger
Shows: 1261
17.05.2010 A Financial Trick in the Familiar Biodiversity Tale
The abundance of vertebrates - mammals, reptiles, amphibians, birds and fish - decreased by about one-third between 1970 and 2006. The big hope of the biodiversity world is the idea of quantifying the economic benefits that nature brings, and then persuading people and governments and businesses that these economic benefits make preservation of said ecosystems a wise policy option.
Author:  Richard Black
Shows: 2162
14.05.2010 Blind mice see the light
Protein from algae could one day be used in treatments for blindness. Blind mice have been made to sense light by inserting a protein derived from algae into their eyes. The light-sensitive protein, called channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2), is used by algae to sense light for photosynthesis. A similar method could one day be used to treat certain forms of blindness in humans, the researchers hope.
Author:  Kerri Smith
Shows: 2222
13.05.2010 Biotech Crops Good for Farmers and Environment, Academy Finds
Fourteen years after genetically engineered crops began to take off in the United States, the overall benefits to farmers are clear, according to a new report from the NRC. The shift from conventionally grown crops has paid off economically and environmentally, says the panel. "We can stop arguing about whether the environmental and economic impacts are significant," says agricultural economist Nicholas Kalaitzandonakes of the University of Missouri, Columbia.
Author:  Erik Stokstad
Shows: 1441
12.05.2010 Radiation Accident a ‘Wake-Up Call’ For India's Scientific Community
The improper disposal of a derelict gamma-ray research device at the University of Delhi has resulted in the death of a scrap-metal worker—and drawn scrutiny of how India's academic institutions handle radioactive materials. India's accident is the latest in a series of radioactive mishaps worldwide.
Author:  Pallava Bagla
Shows: 1561
12.05.2010 Bad habits can age you by 12 years, study suggests
Four common bad habits combined — smoking, drinking too much, inactivity and poor diet — can age you by 12 years, sobering new research suggests. The findings are from a study that tracked nearly 5,000 British adults for 20 years, and they highlight yet another reason to adopt a healthier lifestyle.
Author:  Lindsey Tanner
Shows: 1237
11.05.2010 World's biggest beaver dam discovered in northern Canada
A Canadian ecologist has discovered the world's largest beaver dam in a remote area of northern Alberta, an animal-made structure so large it is visible from space. Researcher Jean Thie said Wednesday he used satellite imagery and Google Earth software to locate the dam, which is about 850 metres (2,800 feet) long on the southern edge of Wood Buffalo National Park.
Author:  Michel Comte and Jacques Lemieux
Shows: 1942
07.05.2010 Whatever Happened to the Hole in the Ozone Layer?
Three British scientists shocked the world when they revealed on May 16th, 1985 - 25 years ago - that aerosol chemicals, among other factors, had torn a hole in the ozone layer over the South Pole. Today, the size of the hole has stabilized, thanks to decades of aerosol-banning legislation. But, scientists warn, some danger still remains.
Author:  Stuart Fox
Shows: 2308
06.05.2010 Government sends skimmers, other gear to oil spill
The government has sent skimmers, booms and other resources to clean up a massive oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico that's become far worse than initially thought and threatens the fragile marshlands along the shore, a Coast Guard official said Thursday.
Author:  CAIN BURDEAU
Shows: 1273
06.05.2010 Ice asteroids likely source of Earth's water: study
Astronomers have for the first time detected ice and organic compounds on an asteroid, a pair of landmark studies released on Wednesday says. The discovery bolsters the theory that comets and asteroids crashing into Earth nearly four billion years ago seeded the planet with water and carbon-based molecules, both essential ingredients for life.
Author:  Marlowe Hood
Shows: 1203
05.05.2010 Substance in chilli peppers key to killing pain
Studying chilli peppers is helping scientists create a new type of painkiller which could stop pain at its source. The team found that blocking the production of a substance similar to capsaicin, which is found in the human body at sites of pain, can stop chronic pain.
Shows: 1602
28.04.2010 Tel Aviv University President Co-authors Important Paper Unraveling the Effect of Spatial Organization on Intracellular Chemistry
Tel Aviv University President Professor, Joseph Klafter, has co-authored a paper that brings together a myriad of seemingly unrelated chemical reactions creating a unified picture of reaction kinetics. "Geometry-Controlled Kinetics," published in Nature Chemistry.
Shows: 1248
28.04.2010 Genes influence smoking addiction: study
Starting smoking and addiction to it could be driven to a large degree by your genes, a trio of studies published on Sunday suggested.
Shows: 1185
27.04.2010 Amorous slug, orange snake among finds on Borneo
A lungless frog, a frog that flies and a slug that shoots love darts are among 123 new species found in Borneo since 2007 in a project to conserve one of the oldest rain forests in the world.
Shows: 2319
26.04.2010 Dreams Linked to Better Memories
Some researchers have speculated that dreams might improve memory. Now, a new study provides some of the first experimental evidence: People who dreamed about a virtual reality maze they'd encountered a few hours earlier were quicker to find a way out when tested a second time.
Shows: 1145
26.04.2010 Empty skies proved that airports cause pollution, say researchers
Scientists have used the no-flying period caused by the ash cloud to show for the first time that airports are themselves significant causes of pollution. Although long suspected, the fact that mass take-offs and landings are large pollution sources could never be proved before, because aircraft pollution could not be measured as separate from the pollution caused by vehicles operating near by.
Shows: 1278
08.04.2010 Longer-Lasting Flowers: Fresh Ideas from New Research
Tomorrow's fragrant bouquets and colorful potted plants might last longer, thanks to floriculture research by Agricultural Research Service (ARS) plant physiologist Cai-Zhong Jiang. His investigations might help boost the vase life of favorite cut flowers and shelf life of prized potted plants.
Shows: 1627
08.04.2010 Animals thrive without oxygen at sea bottom
Living exclusively oxygen-free was thought to be a lifestyle open only to viruses and single-celled microorganisms. A group of Italian and Danish researchers has now found three species of multicellular animal, or metazoan, that apparently spend their entire lives in oxygen-starved waters in a basin at the bottom of the Mediterranean Sea.
Author:  Janet Fang
Shows: 2323
08.04.2010 Seafarers' Scourge Provides Hope for Biofuel Future
For centuries, seafarers were plagued by wood-eating gribble that destroyed their ships, and these creatures continue to wreak damage on wooden piers and docks in coastal communities.
Shows: 1349
07.04.2010 Essential Oils to Fight Superbugs
Essential oils could be a cheap and effective alternative to antibiotics and potentially used to combat drug-resistant hospital superbugs, according to research presented at the Society for General Microbiology's spring meeting in Edinburgh.
Shows: 1057
07.04.2010 Geraniums Could Help Control Devastating Japanese Beetle
Geraniums may hold the key to controlling the devastating Japanese beetle, which feeds on nearly 300 plant species and costs the ornamental plant industry $450 million in damage each year, according to scientists with the Agricultural Research Service (ARS).
Shows: 1679
07.04.2010 Europe to expand list of harmful chemicals
Europe will expand its list of potentially highly dangerous chemicals to 135 from a current 29 by the year 2012, the European commissioners for the environment and for industry said Thursday.
Shows: 1253
06.04.2010 New Bacteria Strain Points the Way Toward 'Super Sourdough' Bread
Scientists have unveiled a new natural sourdough ingredient that could replace conventional additives in a variety of other breads, while making them tastier and more healthful.
Shows: 1454
05.04.2010 Acts of Kindness Spread Surprisingly Easily: Just a Few People Can Make a Difference
For all those dismayed by scenes of looting in disaster-struck zones, whether Haiti or Chile or elsewhere, take heart: Good acts -- acts of kindness, generosity and cooperation -- spread just as easily as bad. And it takes only a handful of individuals to really make a difference.
Shows: 1279
02.04.2010 Europe's electricity could be all renewables by 2050
Europe could meet all its electricity needs from renewable sources by mid-century, according to a report released Monday by services giant PricewaterhouseCoopers.
Shows: 1261
01.04.2010 Tryptophan-Enriched Diet Reduces Pig Aggression
Feeding the amino acid tryptophan to young female pigs as part of their regular diet makes them less aggressive and easier to manage, according to a study by Agricultural Research Service (ARS) scientists and cooperators.
Shows: 946
01.04.2010 Single gene powers hybrid tomato plants: study
A mutation in a single gene can turn hybrid tomato plants into super producers capable of generating more and much sweeter fruit without genetic engineering, scientists said in a study released on Sunday.
Author:  JoAnne Allen
Shows: 1253
01.04.2010 Broader smile, longer life: study
The broader your smile and the deeper the creases around your eyes when you grin, the longer you are likely to live, according to a study published in Psychological Science this week.
Shows: 1395
31.03.2010 Feeling Left Out? Why Consumers Prefer Nostalgic Products
When people acutely feel the need to belong, they may reach for a nostalgic treat, according to a new study in the Journal of Consumer Research.
Shows: 1187
31.03.2010 Malaysia to switch to biofuel next year
Malaysia, the world's second-largest palm oil producer, will make it mandatory for all vehicles to use biofuel from next year, the government announced Wednesday.
Shows: 1150
31.03.2010 Climate change puts Australian reef on 'knife edge'
The world's southernmost coral reef is on a "knife-edge" after warmer seas blamed on climate change bleached large parts of it for the first time, an Australian scientist warned on Wednesday.
Shows: 1742
30.03.2010 'World's Most Useful Tree' Provides New Low-Cost Water Purification Method for Developing World
A low-cost water purification technique published in Current Protocols in Microbiology could help drastically reduce the incidence of waterborne disease in the developing world. The procedure, which uses seeds from the Moringa oleifera tree, can produce a 90.00% to 99.99% bacterial reduction in previously untreated water, and has been made free to download as part of access programs under John Wiley & Sons' Corporate Citizenship Initiative.
Shows: 931
30.03.2010 Resistance can develop fast with swine flu: report
The H1N1 swine flu virus can develop resistance quickly to antivirals used to treat it, U.S. doctors reported on Friday.
Shows: 1176
30.03.2010 New Zealand's GM cattle under fire
Scientists in New Zealand whose work with genetically modified (GM) animals had been threatened by a High Court ruling have been given a reprieve. But they say that the case highlights the legislative challenges their research faces.
Author:  Branwen Morgan
Shows: 805
30.03.2010 Early end to drug tests often exaggerates results: study
The positive treatment effects of clinical trials that were ended early were often exaggerated, according to a study published Tuesday in the Journal of the American Medical Association.
Shows: 1111
30.03.2010 Turkish law could cripple bioscience
In most countries, molecular biologists can place an order for a particular genetic strain of fly and be working on it within weeks. The same is true in Turkey — for now.
Author:  Alison Abbott
Shows: 1141
29.03.2010 Taiwan scientist unveils rapid, low-cost TB test kit
A Taiwan scientist on Sunday unveiled what he said is the first low-cost and efficient test kit for identifying tuberculosis bacteria, killer of more than 1.5 million people worldwide every year.
Shows: 1243
29.03.2010 US proposes to veto mountaintop removal coal mine
The Environmental Protection Agency has proposed an unprecedented veto to restrict or prohibit mining at a major proposed US mountaintop removal coal mining site.
Shows: 846
29.03.2010 Scientists scent breakthrough in truffle trafficking
One of Europe's gastronomic jewels, the fabled black Perigord truffle, has been genetically unravelled, a feat that could doom fakers who pass off inferior truffles as the real thing, scientists said on Sunday.
Shows: 1134
29.03.2010 Teams set for first taste of Antarctic lakes
The pitch-black lakes hidden beneath Antarctica's ice sheet will finally start to release their secrets next year. At a meeting last week, scientists from Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States described their plans to explore the planet's last uncharted ecosystems by drilling into three very different examples of these subglacial lakes.
Author:  Quirin Schiermeier
Shows: 1249
27.03.2010 Atom microscope is boon for materials science
Materials scientists dream of one day being able to place a sample of unknown substance under a microscope and name individual atoms and the structure they form.
Shows: 1257
26.03.2010 Maths behind Internet encryption wins top award
The Abel prize — considered the 'Nobel' prize of mathematics — has been awarded to John Tate, recently retired from the University of Texas at Austin, for his work on algebraic number theory, the mathematical discipline that deals with connections between whole numbers and lies at the heart of Internet security.
Author:  Zeeya Merali
Shows: 1133
26.03.2010 NIH Announces Genetic Testing Registry
The National Institutes of Health announced that it is creating a public database that researchers, consumers, health care providers, and others can search for information submitted voluntarily by genetic test providers. The Genetic Testing Registry (GTR) aims to enhance access to information about the availability, validity, and usefulness of genetic tests.
Shows: 1175
26.03.2010 Bees in more trouble than ever after bad winter
The mysterious 4-year-old crisis of disappearing honeybees is deepening. A quick federal survey indicates a heavy bee die-off this winter, while a new study shows honeybees' pollen and hives laden with pesticides.
Author:  GARANCE BURKE and SETH BORENSTEIN
Shows: 1985
26.03.2010 Cosmos has billions more stars than thought
Astronomers may have underestimated the tally of galaxies in some parts of the Universe by as much as 90 percent, according to a study reported on Wednesday in Nature, the weekly British science journal.
Shows: 1090
25.03.2010 Methane-eating microbes make their own oxygen
Researchers have discovered a possible new species of bacteria that survives by producing and 'breathing' its own oxygen. The finding suggests that some microbes could have thrived without oxygen-producing plants on the early Earth — and on other planets — by using their own oxygen to garner energy from methane (CH4).
Author:  Amanda Leigh Mascarelli
Shows: 841
25.03.2010 Researchers hope to make mosquito 'flying vaccinator'
Japanese researchers hope one day to turn blood-sucking mosquitoes into deliverers of vaccines that could instead inoculate millions for free.
Shows: 1077
25.03.2010 Australian scientists in TB drug breakthrough
Australian scientists said Wednesday they had discovered a drug which could cure tuberculosis at its non-infectious stage and could be the first major breakthrough on the disease in 50 years.
Shows: 1122
25.03.2010 Swine flu virus not so new, study finds
The H1N1 swine flu virus may have been new to humanity in many ways but in one key feature its closest relative was the 1918 pandemic virus, researchers reported on Wednesday.
Author:  Maggie Fox
Shows: 837
25.03.2010 Progress Has Been Made in War on Cancer, but Still Many Challenges
Although there have been achievements in the battle against cancer, including a decrease in the rate of death and new diagnoses, cancer remains one of the leading causes of death in the U.S., with a need for continued improvement in the areas of prevention, detection and treatment, according to a commentary in the March 17 issue of JAMA, a theme issue on cancer.
Shows: 1128
24.03.2010 Nanoparticle kit could diagnose disease early
A detection kit that uses nanoparticles to seek out tiny amounts of disease-related enzymes could offer sensitive and fast diagnoses of cancer, HIV and other diseases.
Author:  Katharine Sanderson
Shows: 887
24.03.2010 Molecular Brake for the Bacterial Flagellar Nano-Motor
Biozentrum researchers have now discovered that Escherichia coli bacteria harness a sophisticated chemosensory and signal transduction machinery that allows them to accurately control motor rotation, thereby adjusting their swimming velocity in response to changing environments.
Shows: 1145
24.03.2010 Elite English universities gain in 2010 funding round
Top research-performing institutions in the UK, including the universities of Cambridge and Oxford and Imperial College London, are the winners in this year's allocation of £1.6 billion (US$2.5 billion) in public funds for research to the UK's 130 universities. But the move to give a few elite institutions a larger share of research cash means a smaller share for other universities — including those producing research rated world class.
Author:  Natasha Gilbert
Shows: 1630
23.03.2010 Worries over electronic waste from the developing world
Public-health problems and environmental degradation caused by recycling of old computer equipment could skyrocket in the next two decades, as increasingly wealthy consumers in countries such as India and China ditch their obsolete hardware.
Author:  Richard A. Lovett
Shows: 1999
23.03.2010 Editor says no to peer review for controversial journal
The editor of what is perhaps the world's most controversial medical journal has pledged to resist attempts by its publisher to implement radical changes to its approach.
Author:  Daniel Cressey
Shows: 878
23.03.2010 Cloves Are 'Best' Natural Antioxidant, Spanish Study Finds
Using spices eaten in the Mediterranean diet as natural antioxidants is a good way forward for the food industry, given the beneficial health effects of these products. This has been shown by researchers from the Miguel Hernández University (UMH), who have put the clove in first place.
Shows: 1257
23.03.2010 New TB Booster Shows Promise
A booster shot appears to improve tuberculosis (TB) resistance in previously vaccinated adults, according to new research in South Africa.
Shows: 1245
22.03.2010 New Lentil Being Readied for Market
"Essex," a new lentil variety developed by Agricultural Research Service (ARS) scientists, has a lot to offer: high seed yields for growers, nitrogen-fixing bacteria for wheat crops, and a tasty source of protein for consumers to add to soups, salads and other fare.
Shows: 1286
22.03.2010 Formula for Making Teeth Will Soon Be Found, Researchers Say
Each cusp of our teeth is regulated by genes which carefully control the development. A similar genetic puzzle also regulates the differentiation of our other organs and of all living organisms. A team of researchers at the Institute of Biotechnology of the University of Helsinki has developed a computer model reproducing population-level variation in complex structures like teeth and organs. The research takes a step towards the growing of correctly shaped teeth and other organs.
Shows: 1146
22.03.2010 How Plants Put Down Roots: Geneticists Research Organ Development in the Plant Embryo
In the beginning is the fertilized egg cell. Following numerous cell divisions, it then develops into a complex organism with different organs and tissues. The largely unexplained process whereby the cells simply "know" the organs into which they should later develop is an astonishing phenomenon.
Shows: 1779
20.03.2010 An Organic Approach to Pest Control: Releasing Super-Sexed (but Sterile) Male Insects
An improved method for sustainable pest control using "super-sexed" but sterile male insects to copulate with female ones is being developed by agricultural researchers at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. The scientists thus hope to offer yet another efficient and promising avenue for supplying produce to the market by eliminating pests without damage to the environment.
Shows: 1292
20.03.2010 Water Oxidation Advance Boosts Potential for Solar Fuel
Emory University chemists have developed the most potent homogeneous catalyst known for water oxidation, considered a crucial component for generating clean hydrogen fuel using only water and sunlight.
Shows: 1233
19.03.2010 New Fund Will Help Young Leaders
On March 18th, 2010 at the Metropolitan's Chambers of the Sofiya Kiyivskaya National Reserve, Bohdan Hawrylyshyn presented his new idea – a charitable fund in his name. Fund homepage: http://bhfoundation.com.ua/
Shows: 1248
19.03.2010 DNA Nanotechnology Breakthrough Offers Promising Applications in Medicine
A team of McGill Chemistry Department researchers led by Dr. Hanadi Sleiman has achieved a major breakthrough in the development of nanotubes -- tiny "magic bullets" that could one day deliver drugs to specific diseased cells. Sleiman explains that the research involves taking DNA out of its biological context. So rather than being used as the genetic code for life, it becomes a kind of building block for tiny nanometre-scale objects.
Shows: 1578
19.03.2010 Frogs, Foam and Fuel: Solar Energy Converted to Sugars
For decades, farmers have been trying to find ways to get more energy out of the sun.  Unfortunately, the allocation of light energy into products we use is not as efficient as we would like. Now engineering researchers at the University of Cincinnati are doing something about that.
Shows: 2141
18.03.2010 Analytical Eye: Viewing Through the Data Jungle
Unmanageable volumes of data accumulate in our digitized working world. Scientists are developing analytical techniques that make use of our ability to identify complex data relationships by means of pictorial images.
Shows: 1100
18.03.2010 Italian molecular cookery 'ban' condemned
An Italian decree that bans a plethora of food additives from restaurant kitchens has been dismissed as unscientific and irrational by food scientists contacted by Nature.
Author:  Emiliano Feresin
Shows: 1320
17.03.2010 Who Does What on Wikipedia?
The quality of entries in the world's largest open-access online encyclopedia depends on how authors collaborate, University of Arizona Professor Sudha Ram finds.
Shows: 1095
16.03.2010 Scientists find "mother" of all skin cells
Scientists have found the "mother," or origin, of all skin cells and say their discovery could dramatically improve skin treatments for victims of serious wounds and burns.
Author:  Kate Kelland
Shows: 1111
16.03.2010 Scientists find new way to help crops fight pests
An international team of scientists has managed to transfer disease resistance from one plant family to another, offering broader protection from potentially costly and destructive pests.
Author:  Kate Kelland
Shows: 1109
15.03.2010 Scientists say UK risks losing innovation edge
Britain risks decades of slow economic decline unless it invests heavily in research, which at the moment is one of the country's few genuine areas of economic competitive advantage, leading scientists said on Tuesday.
Author:  Kate Kelland
Shows: 1138
13.03.2010 Japanese bug to wage war on weeds in Britain
A Japanese insect is to be introduced on a trial basis in Britain to tackle a damaging super-weed, the government announced Tuesday.
Shows: 1509
12.03.2010 IBM makes Earth-friendly plastic from plants
IBM researchers on Tuesday said they have discovered a way to make Earth-friendly plastic from plants that could replace petroleum-based products tough on the environment.
Shows: 1142
11.03.2010 Scientists find why "sunshine" vitamin D is crucial
Most Vitamin D is made by the body as a natural by-product of the skin's exposure to sunlight. It can also be found in fish liver oil, eggs and fatty fish such as salmon, herring and mackerel, or taken as a supplement.
Author:  Kate Kelland
Shows: 1262
10.03.2010 Leaf Veins Inspire a New Model for Distribution Networks
A straight line may be the shortest path from A to B, but it's not always the most reliable or efficient way to go. In fact, depending on what's traveling where, the best route may run in circles, according to a new model that bucks decades of theorizing on the subject. A team of biophysicists at Rockefeller University developed a mathematical model showing that complex sets of interconnecting loops -- like the netted veins that transport water in a leaf -- provide the best distribution network for supplying fluctuating loads to varying parts of the system. It also shows that such a network can best handle damage.
Shows: 2241
09.03.2010 'Battle' on GM foods can't be won: EU official
European Parliament President Jerzy Buzek said on Wednesday he was against genetically-modified foods but said they were an unavoidable part of the future.
Shows: 1876
09.03.2010 Europe eyes underground nuclear waste repositories
Three European countries will within 15 years begin disposing of their nuclear waste deep underground, even though the public is not solidly behind the move, officials said.
Shows: 1164
05.03.2010 Gut bacteria gene complement dwarfs human genome
Researchers have unveiled a catalogue of genes from microbes found in the human gut. The information could reveal how 'friendly' gut bacteria interact with the body to influence nutrition and disease.
Author:  Andrew Bennett Hellman
Shows: 1209
05.03.2010 Infections in US hospitals kill 48,000, cost billions
Nearly 50,000 US medical patients die every year of blood poisoning or pneumonia they picked up in hospital, a study has shown.
Shows: 1199
04.03.2010 Soil bacteria could yield drug to treat roundworm
A bacterial protein used in a common pesticide kills intestinal parasitic roundworms in mice and may become a treatment option for humans, researchers say.
Author:  Janet Fang
Shows: 3273
03.03.2010 Super Material Will Make Lighting Cheaper and Fully Recyclable
With the use of the new super material graphene, Swedish and American researchers have succeeded in producing a new type of lighting component. It is inexpensive to produce and can be fully recycled.
Shows: 1238
02.03.2010 EU authorises GMO potatoes
The European Commission on Tuesday approved the cultivation of genetically-modified potatoes, but environmentalists and some European ministers slammed the so-called "frankenfoods".
Shows: 1712
02.03.2010 Scientists urge rethink on "narrow" health goals
Families in some poor nations are trapped in cycles of illness and poverty as authorities fail to tackle chronic health problems or meet goals on child health and tuberculosis, scientists said on Tuesday.
Author:  Kate Kelland
Shows: 827
01.03.2010 Scientists Turn Light Into Electrical Current Using a Golden Nanoscale System
Material scientists at the Nano/Bio Interface Center of the University of Pennsylvania have demonstrated the transduction of optical radiation to electrical current in a molecular circuit. The system, an array of nano-sized molecules of gold, respond to electromagnetic waves by creating surface plasmons that induce and project electrical current across molecules, similar to that of photovoltaic solar cells.
Shows: 1317
27.02.2010 Stemming arm blood protects heart during attack
Temporarily stopping blood flow in the arm prevents damage in people having a heart attack, a Danish study has shown.
Author:  Emma Wilkinson
Shows: 1076
27.02.2010 Quantum Physics Breakthrough: Scientists Find an Equation for Materials Innovation
Princeton engineers have made a breakthrough in an 80-year-old quandary in quantum physics, paving the way for the development of new materials that could make electronic devices smaller and cars more energy efficient.
Shows: 926
26.02.2010 German paper chase to end
Sometimes less is more — at least in grant proposals. That's the hope of the DFG, Germany's main research-funding agency, which plans to drastically restrict the number of papers that researchers can list in their grant applications.
Author:  Quirin Schiermeier
Shows: 1522
26.02.2010 WWF welcomes new protected areas in Ukraine
Environmental group WWF on Wednesday welcomed Ukraine's decision to designate large swathes of land as protected, but warned that key areas, such as the Danube delta, were still under threat.
Shows: 1497
26.02.2010 Indonesia aims to be world's breadbasket
Following Brazil's trail, Indonesia is encouraging foreign and local investors to lease huge swathes of fertile countryside and help make the country a major food producer.
Shows: 1169
25.02.2010 Small dogs originated in Middle East
Small domesticated dogs probably originated in the Middle East more than 12,000 years ago as the descendants of grey wolves, according to a gene study published on Wednesday.
Shows: 2068
25.02.2010 EU leaders to discuss Danube region
EU leaders and ministers are meeting today in Budapest to discuss economic and environmental developments for the Danube region.
Shows: 1171
25.02.2010 International cooperation saving Siberian crane
The threat of extinction for the majestic Siberian crane is receding thanks to cooperation among countries including China, Russia and Iran, the UN said Wednesday.
Shows: 1128
24.02.2010 Red Sea corals mapped in unprecedented detail
Using a combination of satellite, aerial and ship-based techniques, a team of US scientists has mapped little-known coral reefs along Saudi Arabia's Red Sea coastline.
Author:  Richard A. Lovett
Shows: 903
24.02.2010 Molecule With Promising Semiconductor Properties Created
A team of chemists from the University of New Hampshire has synthesized the first-ever stable derivative of nonacene, creating a compound that holds significant promise in the manufacture of flexible organic electronics such as large displays, solar cells and radio frequency identification tags.
Shows: 1104
23.02.2010 US scientists warn of fraud of stem cell 'banks'
"Umbilical cords contain blood-forming stem cells at a level that would maintain the blood-forming capacity of a very young child," Weissman told reporters at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS).
Shows: 1282
23.02.2010 Of Swine, Birds and Humans: Pandemic H1N1 Flu
Current research suggests that pandemic H1N1 influenza of swine origin has distinct means of transmission from the seasonal flu, yet does not result in the pathogenic severity of avian flu viruses.
Shows: 1075
22.02.2010 Will Coral Reefs Disappear?
Will coral reefs disappear? This is the title of a symposium presented at the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) annual conference in San Diego, California. And it's a topic that should not be taken lightly.
Shows: 1706
22.02.2010 Quantum Computing Leap Forward: Altering a Lone Electron Without Disturbing Its Neighbors
A major hurdle in the ambitious quest to design and construct a radically new kind of quantum computer has been finding a way to manipulate the single electrons that very likely will constitute the new machines' processing components or "qubits."
Shows: 791
22.02.2010 Millimeter-Scale, Energy-Harvesting Sensor System Can Operate Nearly Perpetually
A 9 cubic millimeter solar-powered sensor system developed at the University of Michigan is the smallest that can harvest energy from its surroundings to operate nearly perpetually.
Shows: 824
22.02.2010 Second 'Quantum Logic Clock' Based on Aluminum Ion Is Now World's Most Precise Clock
Physicists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have built an enhanced version of an experimental atomic clock based on a single aluminum atom that is now the world's most precise clock, more than twice as precise as the previous pacesetter based on a mercury atom.
Shows: 755
22.02.2010 Did Bacteria Develop Into More Complex Cells Much Earlier in Evolution Than Thought?
Monash University biochemists have found a critical piece in the evolutionary puzzle that explains how life on Earth evolved millions of centuries ago.
Shows: 760
22.02.2010 Predicting Effectiveness of Flu Vaccination Campaigns
A new study published in Vaccine describes a new method that assesses the impact and cost-effectiveness of a range of vaccination options. The model was applied to the 2009 influenza H1N1 outbreak and predicted accurately in real-time when the epidemic would peak and who should be prioritized for vaccination.
Shows: 1045
22.02.2010 New Method for Measuring Fluid Flow in Algae Could Herald Revolution for Fluid Mechanics
In the words of Todd Squires, of the University of California, Santa Barbara "Nature has long inspired researchers in fluid mechanics to explore the mechanical strategies used by living creatures. Where better to look for innovative solutions to a technological challenge than to organisms that have had millions of years to devise strategies for related challenges?"
Shows: 1041
22.02.2010 New Perspective for Understanding the Mechanisms of Catalytic Conversion
The oxidation of toxic carbon monoxide (CO) to carbon dioxide occurs every day in millions of cars. Despite being one of the most studied catalytic processes, the exact mechanism of interaction between the carbon monoxide molecule and the catalyst, often platinum, is not fully understood. An important step in the reaction is the adsorption of CO on the surface of the catalyst. A team of scientists from the ESRF and the ETH in Zurich (Switzerland) has managed to see how the electrons in the platinum reorganize as the adsorption is taking place and why catalysts are "poisoned," i.e. why their activity is reduced.
Shows: 652
20.02.2010 Biotech firm launches new fuel enzyme
A Danish biotechnology company on Tuesday launched a new enzyme which it said will make it possible to turn agricultural waste into biofuel at a competitive price.
Shows: 1112
19.02.2010 Danube countries agree to protect 'Amazon of Europe'
Ministers from the 14 countries of the Danube basin adopted here Tuesday a plan to clean up and protect the historic river seen by green groups as Europe's lifeline and the "Amazon of Europe".
Shows: 1345
19.02.2010 Scientists recreate Big Bang heat of 4 tln degrees C
US physicists have created matter at around four trillion degrees Celsius, the hottest temperature ever reached in a laboratory, simulating a "quark soup" scientists believe existed at the universe's birth.
Shows: 1230
19.02.2010 Australia's cane toads face death by cat food
Australia's vile and poisonous plague of cane toads may finally have met its match -- and it comes in a tin of cat food.

After years spent trying to batter, gas, run over and even freeze the toxic toads out of existence, scientists say just a dollop of Whiskas could stop the warty horde.

Shows: 1135
19.02.2010 Study shows how viruses changed human evolution
Italian scientists said on Friday they had found evidence of how viruses helped change the course of human evolution and said their discovery could help in the design of better drugs and vaccines.
Shows: 1110
18.02.2010 Rethinking Renewable Energy Strategy
Researchers at Queen's University suggest that policy makers examine greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions implications for energy infrastructure as fossil fuel sources must be rapidly replaced by windmills, solar panels and other sources of renewable energy.
Shows: 1088
18.02.2010 Biofuels Policy Fails to Achieve Goals, Warn Experts
US biofuel policies will fail to achieve the intended environmental, energy and agricultural goals, warns authors of an article in the journal Applied Economics Perspectives and Policy (AEPP).
Shows: 1085
18.02.2010 Fewer Honey Bee Colonies and Beekeepers Throughout Europe
The number of bee colonies in Central Europe has decreased over recent decades. In fact, the number of beekeepers has been declining in the whole of Europe since 1985. This is the result of a study that has now been published by the International Bee Research Association, which for the first time has provided an overview of the problem of bee colony decline at the European level.
Shows: 2868
17.02.2010 Measuring Rainfall With Mobile Phone Antennas
As rain interferes with radio signals, researchers have been able to measure rainfall using data supplied by the mobile telecommunications company Orange. The new method offers greater spatial resolution than traditional point measurements provided by rain gauges. In the future, this could be combined with intelligent control systems for sewer networks so as to reduce water pollution in urban areas.
Shows: 809
17.02.2010 Mechanical Forces Could Affect Gene Expression
University of Michigan researchers have shown that tension on DNA molecules can affect gene expression---the process at the heart of biological function that tells a cell what to do.
Shows: 1159
17.02.2010 'Good' Bacteria Keep Immune System Primed to Fight Future Infections
Scientists have long pondered the seeming contradiction that taking broad-spectrum antibiotics over a long period of time can lead to severe secondary bacterial infections. Now researchers from the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine may have figured out why.
Shows: 791
17.02.2010 How Certain Hormones Control Aspects of Root Branching in Plants
Roots are the most underestimated parts of a plant, even though they are crucial for water and nutrient uptake and consequently growth. In a world of changing water availability and an ever-increasing human population, it will therefore be crucial to understand how root development is controlled in plants. Scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology in Tübingen, Germany, now described that the plant hormone auxin together with an increased cell cycle activity leads to a boost in root branching in the common thale cress Arabidopsis thaliana.
Shows: 1237
17.02.2010 Universal DNA Reader Will Advance Faster, Cheaper Sequencing Efforts
Arizona State University scientists have come up with a new twist in their efforts to develop a faster and cheaper way to read the DNA genetic code. They have developed the first, versatile DNA reader that can discriminate between DNA's four core chemical components - the key to unlocking the vital code behind human heredity and health.

Shows: 1286
16.02.2010 Scientists Synthesize Unique Family of Anti-Cancer Compounds
Yale University scientists have streamlined the process for synthesizing a family of compounds with the potential to kill cancer and other diseased cells, and have found that they represent a unique category of anti-cancer agents. Their discovery appears in this week's online edition of the Journal of the American Chemical Society.
Shows: 1285
15.02.2010 Silicon whiskers catch rays well
New device could make solar cells cheaper.

Roll out the micro-carpet — a new solar-cell design based on a blanket of silicon rods could produce electricity at a fraction of the cost of conventional solar devices.
Author:  Zeeya Merali
Shows: 1259
15.02.2010 Quantum Mechanics at Work in Photosynthesis: Algae Familiar With These Processes for Nearly Two Billion Years
A team of University of Toronto chemists have made a major contribution to the emerging field of quantum biology, observing quantum mechanics at work in photosynthesis in marine algae.
Shows: 1310
13.02.2010 Professor charged in university shooting
HUNTSVILLE, Ala. - A biology professor was charged with murder late Friday in the shooting deaths of three colleagues at the campus.
Shows: 1141
12.02.2010 Spherical Cows Help to Dump Metabolism Law
Apparently, the mysterious "3/4 law of metabolism" -- proposed by Max Kleiber in 1932, printed in biology textbooks for decades, explained theoretically in Science in 1997 and described in a 2000 essay in Nature as "extended to all life forms" from bacteria to whales -- is just plain wrong.
Shows: 906
12.02.2010 Code Defends Against 'Stealthy' Computer Worms
Self-propagating worms are malicious computer programs, which, after being released, can spread throughout networks without human control, stealing or erasing hard drive data, interfering with pre-installed programs and slowing, even crashing, home and work computers. Now a new code, or algorithm, created by Penn State researchers targets the "stealthiest" of these worms, containing them before an outbreak can occur.
Shows: 1121
11.02.2010 India's transgenic aubergine in a stew
India's government has refused to allow commercial cultivation of what would have been the country's first genetically modified (GM) food crop. The decision has been welcomed by green activists, but some scientists say that it will set back Indian plant-biotechnology research.
Shows: 936
11.02.2010 The new book about Ukraine
The new book about Ukraine in Europe: Questions and Answers /Authored and edited by Dr. Olexiy Haran, University of Kyiv Mohyla Academy seeks to provide answers to questions foreigners often ask about Ukraine.
Shows: 1238
11.02.2010 Natural Gas Supplies Could Be Augmented With Methane Hydrate
Naturally occurring methane hydrate may represent an enormous source of methane, the main component of natural gas, and could ultimately augment conventional natural gas supplies, says a new congressionally mandated report from the National Research Council. Although a number of challenges require attention before commercial production can be realized, no technical challenges have been identified as insurmountable.
Shows: 1213
10.02.2010 Researchers Track Evolution and Spread of Drug-Resistant Bacteria Across Hospitals and Continents
An international team of researchers has used high resolution genome sequencing to track a particularly virulent strain of MRSA as it traveled between South America, Europe and Southeast Asia. The findings shed light on how these deadly bacteria are able to spread from patient to patient in a single hospital and, on a larger scale of geography and time, between countries and entire continents.
Shows: 1209
09.02.2010 Project set to map marks on genome
Consortium sets sights on the differences that make us different.

At one time, sequencing the whole human genome seemed almost impossible. But even as it was being completed, biologists were realizing that the genes encoded within it would reveal little about what makes each of us unique.
Author:  Alison Abbott
Shows: 1870
08.02.2010 High Above, Insects Travel On Sky Superhighways

Every year, an enormous migration takes place in Western Europe. Millions of moths fly for days, riding wind currents southward in the fall and north in the spring.

Scientists thought these insects were simply blown to their destinations, but now they've discovered something remarkable: The moths actually select the fastest wind currents, and even change course to shorten their trip.

Shows: 2164
05.02.2010 Test of "artificial pancreas" offers diabetes hope
Scientists have used an "artificial pancreas" system of pumps and monitors to improve blood sugar control in diabetes patients in the first study to show the new device works better than conventional treatment.
Shows: 1102
04.02.2010 Scientists Create New Way to Screen Libraries of 10 Million or More Compounds
The search for new drug compounds is probably worse than looking for a needle in a haystack because scientists are limited in the size of the haystacks they can rummage through -- time and money make it virtually impossible to screen or search through super-large libraries of potential compounds. This is a serious problem, because there is enormous interest in identifying synthetic molecules that bind to proteins for applications in drug discovery, biology, and proteomics, and larger libraries should mean higher odds of success.
Shows: 1110
04.02.2010 Helpful Yeast Battles Food-Contaminating Aflatoxin
Pistachios, almonds and other popular tree nuts might someday be routinely sprayed with a yeast called Pichia anomala. Laboratory and field studies by Agricultural Research Service (ARS) plant physiologist Sui-Sheng (Sylvia) Hua have shown that the yeast competes successfully for nutrients--and space to grow--that might otherwise be used by an unwanted mold, Aspergillus flavus.
Shows: 1555
04.02.2010 Who Is Most Likely to Take Precautions During a Pandemic?
A study that looked at how people behave during pandemics has identified key demographic and psychological factors that may predict protective behaviours. The study is published online January 30 2010, in the British Journal of Health Psychology.

Shows: 1186
03.02.2010 Epigenetics Could Help Researchers Determine Any Risks Associated With Low-Dose Radiation
There remains a lack of consensus amongst the medical and scientific communities about any cancer risk from low level radiation, particularly low-dose radiation delivered from computed tomography (CT) scans. However, the study of epigenetics may play a role in determining whether or not future trends of diseases can in fact be linked to utilization of CT, according to an article in the February issue of the Journal of the American College of Radiology (JACR).
Shows: 1184
03.02.2010 Lancet Renounces Study Linking Autism And Vaccines
It took 12 years, but the medical journal the Lancet has retracted once and for all a controversial paper that drew a link between vaccines and autism and helped fuel a backlash against immunization of children.
Shows: 1272
03.02.2010 Transgenic Tomatoes Last Longer
The scientists identified two enzymes that accumulate in tomatoes at critical stages during the fruit’s ripening and which promote excessive softening that accounts for as much as 40 percent of post-harvest fruit loss. They used genetic engineering to "silence" the enzymes, making tomatoes twice as firm.
Shows: 1419
03.02.2010 Key Milestone Reached on Road to Graphene-Based Electronic Devices
Researchers in the Electro-Optics Center (EOC) Materials Division at Penn State have produced 100mm diameter graphene wafers, a key milestone in the development of graphene for next generation high frequency electronic devices. Graphene is a 2-dimensional layer of tightly bound carbon atoms arranged in hexagonal arrays. Sheets of graphene are the building blocks of graphite. Due to its phenomenal electronic properties, graphene has been considered as a leading material for next generation electronic devices in the multibillion dollar semiconductor industry.
Shows: 1269
03.02.2010 Improved Air Quality Linked to Fewer Pediatric Ear Infections
A new study by researchers at UCLA and Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston suggests that improvements in air quality over the past decade have resulted in fewer cases of ear infections in children.
Shows: 1170
02.02.2010 Signing Contracts on the Telephone
Researchers at Fraunhofer SIT have developed a digital signature for Internet telephony that allows the legally binding archiving of calls. At the GSMA Mobile World Congress in Barcelona (Hall 2, Stand E41) the experts will be demonstrating how the VoIPS software works.
Shows: 1108
02.02.2010 Does Slum Tourism Make Us Better People?
Slum tourism is a growth industry with more and more wealthy travellers opting to visit the poorest parts of the world. What is it that is prompting slum tourism? Is it a new trend? What impact does slum tourism have on the people who opt for this kind of 'holiday'? Do they become better people as a result and does the experience prompt a call to action for social change?
Shows: 1148
02.02.2010 Genetically modified seeds 'are everywhere'
GENETICALLY modified crops are everywhere, it seems - even in Europe. Strict laws designed to keep the European Union free of unauthorised GM crops and products are not working, and are posing problems for the EU's €150 billion livestock industry, according to farmers' representatives. They say that supplies of animal feed for poultry and pigs are being refused entry at European ports when found to contain even trace amounts of unauthorised GM material.
Author:  Andy Coghlan
Shows: 1245
01.02.2010 Doctors Develop Life-Saving, Low-Cost Ventilators for Emergency, Rural and Military Use
A group of UK anaesthetists have designed and tested three prototype low-cost ventilators that could provide vital support during major healthcare emergencies involving large numbers of patients or casualties. The devices, detailed in a paper published online by Anaesthesia, could also be used where resources are limited, such as in developing countries, remote locations or by the military.
Shows: 798
01.02.2010 Spongiform Brain Diseases Are Caused by Aberrant Protein, New Research Shows
Scientists have determined how a normal protein can be converted into a prion, an infectious agent that causes fatal brain diseases in humans and mammals.
Shows: 831
01.02.2010 Theoretical Model Clarifies the Low-Temperature Phase Behavior of Liquid Water
A theoretical study of the phase behaviour of liquid water at temperatures close to -100ºC has shown that the four possible scenarios identified to date are in fact specific cases in a more general model.
Shows: 1151
01.02.2010 Plant flavanoid may help prevent leukemia
Eating foods like celery and parsley which contain the naturally occurring flavanoid apigenin may help prevent leukemia, Dutch scientists said Thursday.

The findings suggest apigenin could hold promise for preventing leukemia, Peppelenbosch said.
Shows: 1185
01.02.2010 Water vapour could be behind warming slowdown
Mysterious changes in the stratosphere may have offset greenhouse effect.

A puzzling drop in the amount of water vapour high in the Earth's atmosphere is now on the list of possible culprits causing average global temperatures to flatten out over the past decade, despite ever-increasing greenhouse-gas emissions.
Shows: 1482
29.01.2010 Mouse Skin Cells Turned Directly Into Neurons
Scientists at the Stanford University School of Medicine have succeeded in transforming mouse skin cells in a laboratory dish directly into functional nerve cells with the application of just three genes. The cells make the change without first becoming a pluripotent type of stem cell -- a step long thought to be required for cells to acquire new identities.
Shows: 2146
29.01.2010 Altered microbe makes biofuel
Bacterium could work directly on grass or crop waste.

In a bid to overcome the drawbacks of existing biofuels, researchers have engineered a bacterium that can convert a form of raw plant biomass directly into clean, road-ready diesel.
Author:  Jeff Tollefson
Shows: 1196
28.01.2010 Fossil feathers reveal dinosaurs' true colours
Pigment-storage sacs found in fossils give hints about hue.

Pristine fossils of dinosaur feathers from China have yielded the first clues about their colour.

A team of palaeontologists led by Michael Benton of the University of Bristol, UK, and Zhonghe Zhou of the Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology in Beijing, has discovered ancient colour-producing sacs in fossilized feathers from the Jehol site in northeastern China that are more than 100 million years old.


Author:  Matt Kaplan
Shows: 1145
28.01.2010 Nutrition Has a Direct Influence on the Immune System

Bonn researchers have discovered an elementary mechanism which regulates vital immune functions in healthy people. In situations of hunger which mean stress for the body's cells, the body releases more antimicrobial peptides in order to protect itself. The scientists will publish their results in the journal Nature.
Shows: 1125
27.01.2010 Colliding Particles Can Make Black Holes
You've heard the controversy. Particle physicists predict the world's new highest-energy atom smasher, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) near Geneva, Switzerland, might create tiny black holes, which they say would be a fantastic discovery. Some doomsayers fear those black holes might gobble up Earth--physicist say that's impossible--and have petitioned the United Nations to stop the $5.5 billion LHC. Curiously, though, nobody had ever shown that the prevailing theory of gravity, Einstein's theory of general relativity, actually predicts that a black hole can be made this way. Now a computer model shows conclusively for the first time that a particle collision really can make a black hole.
Author:  Adrian Cho
Shows: 1219
26.01.2010 Birdlike Dinosaur Was Adept Glider
How did birds learn to fly? The first flight tests of a foam model of a four-winged, feathered dinosaur suggest that early birds may have started their aviation careers by gliding down from trees.
Author:  Dennis Normile
Shows: 1219
26.01.2010 Biodiversity talks get under way

Delegates begin to hammer out a new strategy for the Convention on Biological Diversity.


Renewed efforts to preserve the world's biodiversity should be led by an ambitious long-term vision, which could include halting extinctions by 2050.
Author:  Natasha Gilbert
Shows: 866
26.01.2010 Human Brain Uses a Grid to Represent Space

'Grid cells' that act like a spatial map in the brain have been identified for the first time in humans, according to new research by UCL scientists which may help to explain how we create internal maps of new environments.
Shows: 890
26.01.2010 Stunning New Look at the Cat's Paw Nebula
This striking new image shows the vast cloud of gas and dust known as the Cat’s Paw Nebula or NGC 6334. This glowing nebula resembles a gigantic pawprint of a celestial cat out on an errand across the Universe. This complex region of gas and dust, where numerous massive stars are born, lies near the heart of the Milky Way galaxy, about 5500 light-years away. It covers an area on the sky slightly larger than the full Moon. The whole gas cloud is about 50 light-years across.
Author:  Nancy Atkinson
Shows: 1287
26.01.2010 Early humans wiped out Australia's giants
Climate not to blame for the extinction of Australia's big animals.

Humans, not climate change, caused the mass extinction of Australia's giant animals, such as huge kangaroos, tens of thousands of years ago.
Author:  Cheryl Jones
Shows: 1176
25.01.2010 Prairie dogs chat with advanced 'language'
On first appearances they seem to be little more than a kind of nervous ground squirrel with a loud squeak, but new research is revealing that prairie dogs are in fact some of nature's most talkative creatures.

Author:  Richard Gray
Shows: 1731
22.01.2010 The Neural Advantage of Speaking 2 Languages
The ability to speak a second language isn’t the only thing that distinguishes bilingual people from their monolingual counterparts—their brains work differently, too. Research has shown, for instance, that children who know two languages more easily solve problems that involve misleading cues. A new study published in Psychological Science reveals that knowledge of a second language—even one learned in adolescence—affects how people read in their native tongue.
Author:  Melinda Wenner
Shows: 962
22.01.2010 Asteroid Collision May Have Created Comet-like Object
A strange comet-like object discovered on January 6, 2010 may actually be the result of a collision between two asteroids. Lincoln Near-Earth Asteroid Research (LINEAR) sky survey in New Mexico spotted an object in the asteroid belt, called P/2010 A that looked "fuzzy," with a tail like a comet rather than a speck of light like a normal asteroid. But comets don't normally reside in the asteroid belt, and the object's orbit is all wrong for a comet.
Author:  Nancy Atkinson
Shows: 1341
21.01.2010 Bee decline linked to falling biodiversity

The decline of honeybees seen in many countries may be caused by reduced plant diversity, research suggests.

Bees fed pollen from a range of plants showed signs of having a healthier immune system than those eating pollen from a single type, scientists found.
Author:  Richard Black
Shows: 1207
21.01.2010 Face Recognition Ability Inherited Separately from IQ
Recognizing faces is an important social skill, but not all of us are equally good at it. Some people are unable to recognize even their closest friends (a condition called prosopagnosia), while others have a near-photographic memory for large numbers of faces. Now a twin study by collaborators at MIT and in Beijing shows that face recognition is heritable, and that it is inherited separately from general intelligence or IQ.
Shows: 948
21.01.2010 When the Smoke Clears: Molecular Link Between Tobacco Carcinogen and Cancer
A team of researchers, led by Yi-Ching Wang, at National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan, Republic of China, has uncovered a potential mechanism by which the tobacco-specific carcinogen NNK promotes lung tumor formation and development.
Shows: 1233
21.01.2010 Endangered Species: Humans Might Have Faced Extinction 1 Million Years Ago
New genetic findings suggest that early humans living about one million years ago were extremely close to extinction.

The genetic evidence suggests that the effective population—an indicator of genetic diversity—of early human species back then, including Homo erectus, H. ergaster and archaic H. sapiens, was about 18,500 individuals (it is thought that modern humans evolved from H. erectus), says Lynn Jorde, a human geneticist at the University of Utah in Salt Lake City. That figure translates into a total population of 55,500 individuals, tops.
Author:  Carina Storrs
Shows: 1119
20.01.2010 Scientists Identify Ecuador's Yasuni National Park as One of Most Biodiverse Places on Earth
A team of scientists has documented that Yasuní National Park, in the core of the Ecuadorian Amazon, shatters world records for a wide array of plant and animal groups, from amphibians to trees to insects.
Shows: 936
19.01.2010 The fickle Y chromosome
The male sex chromosome, long dismissed as the underachieving runt of the genome, has now been fully sequenced in a common chimpanzee. And comparison with its human counterpart — the only other Y chromosome to have been sequenced in such detail — reveals a rate of change that puts the rest of the genome to shame.
Shows: 1423
18.01.2010 Mexican megacrystals formed by climate back-and-forth

WHY are these crystals so huge? The answer is ancient climate swings.

Gypsum crystals up to 11 metres long were found a decade ago in caves next to the Naica mine near Chihuahua, Mexico.
Shows: 944
18.01.2010 Jiminy cricket, pollinator caught in the act
Birds do it, bees do it, and apparently crickets do it too. Using night-vision cameras, scientists have documented cricket pollination of an orchid on the island of Réunion. The sighting is the first report of flower pollination by an orthopteran insect, a member of the order that includes katydids, grasshoppers and locusts, researchers report online January 11 and in an upcoming issue of the Annals of Botany. And the cricket itself — a species of raspy cricket — is new to science.
Author:  Rachel Ehrenberg
Shows: 1228
15.01.2010 Understanding Why Leopards Can't Change Their Spots
The leopard cannot change its spots, nor can the tiger change its stripes, but a new research report published in the January 2010 issue of the journal Genetics tells us something about how cats end up with their spots and stripes. It demonstrates for the first time that at least three different genes are involved in the emergence of stripes, spots, and other markings on domestic cats.
Shows: 914
15.01.2010 Giant Magnetic Loop Sweeps Through Space Between Stellar Pair
Astronomers have found a giant magnetic loop stretched outward from one of the stars making up the famous double-star system Algol. The scientists used an international collection of radio telescopes to discover the feature, which may help explain details of previous observations of the stellar system.
Shows: 952
15.01.2010 Soybean Genome Sequenced: Analysis Reveals Pathways for Improving Biodiesel, Disease Resistance, and Reducing Waste Runoff

Soybean, one of the most important global sources of protein and oil, is now the first legume species with a published complete draft genome sequence. The sequence and its analysis appear in the January 14 edition of the journal Nature.
Shows: 1297
13.01.2010 Mystery Behind Galaxy Shapes Solved

Galaxies come in many shapes and sizes, but until recently astronomers have been at a loss to explain why.

Now scientists have used dark matter theory to predict the menagerie of galaxies found in the universe. Their new model reproduces 13 billion years' worth of cosmic evolution, resulting in a surprisingly accurate tally of the different kinds of galaxies we see.

Author:  Clara Moskowitz
Shows: 1208
12.01.2010 Neanderthal 'make-up' containers discovered

Scientists claim to have the first persuasive evidence that Neanderthals wore "body paint" 50,000 years ago.
Shows: 1176
11.01.2010 Evolutionary Surprise: Eight Percent of Human Genetic Material Comes from a Virus
About eight percent of human genetic material comes from a virus and not from our ancestors, according to researchers in Japan and the U.S.

The study, and an accompanying News & Views article by University of Texas at Arlington biology professor Cédric Feschotte, is published in the journal Nature.
Shows: 771
11.01.2010 What Came First in the Origin of Life? New Study Contradicts the 'Metabolism First' Hypothesis
A new study published in Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences rejects the theory that the origin of life stems from a system of self-catalytic molecules capable of experiencing Darwinian evolution without the need of RNA or DNA and their replication.
Shows: 829
08.01.2010 Discovery pushes back date of first four-legged animal

The oldest known tracks of a four-limbed land animal could rewrite part of vertebrate evolution.

Some prints, showing individual digits, were found in limestone slabs unearthed in a quarry near Zachełmie, Poland, dated to about 395 million years ago — more than 18 million years before tetrapods were thought to have evolved.

Author:  Rex Dalton
Shows: 1304
06.01.2010 Chemists crack complex compound

One of the most daunting challenges for synthetic chemists has finally been conquered. The effort to make palau'amine in the lab sparked heated competition for more than a decade between leading researchers, even though it may have little potential as a drug.
Author:  Mark Peplow
Shows: 943
05.01.2010 New Evidence Of Culture In Wild Chimpanzees
A new study of chimpanzees living in the wild adds to evidence that our closest primate relatives have cultural differences, too. The study, reported online on October 22nd in Current Biology, shows that neighboring chimpanzee populations in Uganda use different tools to solve a novel problem: extracting honey trapped within a fallen log.
Shows: 988
30.12.2009 Gingko Doesn't Slow Cognitive Decline in Elderly
Having trouble remembering to take your Ginkgo supplement? The pills themselves might not help with that forgetfulness—or any other age-related cognitive decline, according to a new study published online Tuesday in JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association.
Author:  Katherine Harmon
Shows: 1007
29.12.2009 Tidal Forces Trigger Tremors on San Andreas Fault

The subtle changes in stress caused by tides in Earth’s crust can trigger small, deep quakes along a seismically active portion of California’s San Andreas fault, a new analysis suggests.
Author:  Sid Perkins, Science News
Shows: 1275
24.12.2009 Ancient clone saw out the last ice age

Clones of an ancient bush have been discovered in California by botanists who reckon the original plant first grew at the height of the last ice age, 13,000 years ago.
Author:  Jessica Hamzelou
Shows: 1293
24.12.2009 Microbial encyclopaedia guided by evolution
Sequencing project reveals microbial cache of protein families.

Sequencing neglected microbes could accelerate the discovery of new protein families and biological traits, a study published today suggests.
Author:  Brendan Borrell
Shows: 957
23.12.2009 When Fire Approaches, Chimps Keep Their Cool
When primatologist Jill Pruetz found herself threatened by wildfires in the savannas of Fongoli, Senegal, in 2006 she had two options: stay with the chimpanzees she was studying, or run. She chose the chimps. The primates were calm, and--with her in tow--they carefully made their way around the blaze. "I was very surprised at how good they were at judging the threat and predicting the behavior of fire," says Pruetz. The chimps' actions, she would later report, set them apart from other nonhuman animals--and they may reveal the evolutionary origins of how we came to master fire.
Author:  Jon Cohen
Shows: 811
23.12.2009 Royal Botanic Gardens discover nearly 300 new plant and fungi species

Giant rainforest trees with exploding seed pods and minute fungi are among nearly 300 new species discovered by scientists from the Royal Botanic Gardens in their 250th anniversary year.
Author:  Murray Wardrop
Shows: 853
22.12.2009 Feathered Dinosaurs Were Venomous Predators

Early dinosaurs weren’t just covered in feathers. They were also poisonous.

Analysis of skulls belonging to different species of Sinornithosaurus, a group of feathered predatory theropods that lived 125 million years ago in what is now northeast China, shows skeletal features reminiscent of modern rear-fanged snakes and lizards.

Author:  Brandon Keim
Shows: 1278
22.12.2009 Cassini Captures Sunshine Gleaming off Lake on Titan

The Cassini Spacecraft has captured the first flash of sunlight reflected off a lake on Saturn's moon Titan, confirming the presence of liquid on the part of the moon dotted with many large, lake-shaped basins.
Author:  Nancy Atkinson
Shows: 1267
18.12.2009 Stone Age sorghum found in African cave

Harvesting of wild grains may have begun more than 100,000 years ago.
Author:  Brendan Borrell
Shows: 1318
18.12.2009 Dark Matter Researchers Still in the Dark as Underground Search Returns Uncertain Results

Detectors buried deep within a mine registered two potential signals of dark matter, but either or both could have been background noise

Author:  John Matson
Shows: 1102
17.12.2009 Mom and Dad not equally to blame for some bad genes
Depending which parent passes on a trait, disease risk could go up or down
Great. Just in time for the holidays, researchers are fueling the debate about which side of the family is responsible for your more undesirable traits.
Shows: 952
16.12.2009 Icy Moons of Saturn and Jupiter May Have Conditions Needed for Life
Scientists once thought that life could originate only within a solar system's "habitable zone," where a planet would be neither too hot nor too cold for liquid water to exist on its surface. But according to planetary scientist Francis Nimmo, evidence from recent NASA missions suggests that conditions necessary for life may exist on the icy satellites of Saturn and Jupiter.
Shows: 933
16.12.2009 Tool Use Found in Octopuses

After years of surprising scientists with their cleverness and smarts, some octopuses appear to also use tools.

Veined octopuses observed off the coast of Indonesia carried coconut shell halves under their bodies, and assembled them as necessary into shelters — something that wasn’t supposed to be possible in their corner of the animal kingdom.

Shows: 1256
15.12.2009 Introns Nonsense DNA May Be More Important to Evolution of Genomes Than Thought
The sequences of nonsense DNA that interrupt genes could be far more important to the evolution of genomes than previously thought, according to a recent Science report by Indiana University Bloomington and University of New Hampshire biologists.
Shows: 949
15.12.2009 Panda genome unveiled
What’s black and white and read all over? The giant panda genome. All 2.4 billion DNA base pairs of a 3-year-old female panda named Jingjing have been cataloged, researchers report online December 13 in Nature. The information will help researchers understand panda traits such as finicky diets. A thorough understanding of panda genetics may aid conservation efforts for the endangered bear.
Author:  Laura Sanders
Shows: 1489
14.12.2009 Alien Gases in Our Atmosphere
The next breath you take could have come from beyond Pluto. Researchers studying the composition of ancient gases trapped in deep wells in New Mexico have found convincing evidence that some of our planet's atmosphere originated in the far reaches of the solar system. The discovery could change long-standing thinking about how Earth's atmosphere evolved.
Author:  Phil Berardelli
Shows: 2358
11.12.2009 Noninvasive Technique to Rewrite Fear Memories Developed
Researchers at New York University have developed a non-invasive technique to block the return of fear memories in humans. The technique, reported in the latest issue of the journal Nature, may change how we view the storage processes of memory and could lead to new ways to treat anxiety disorders.
Shows: 1084
11.12.2009 DNA Sheds New Light on Horse Evolution
Ancient DNA retrieved from extinct horse species from around the world has challenged one of the textbook examples of evolution -- the fossil record of the horse family Equidae over the past 55 million years.
Shows: 883
10.12.2009 The big spill: Flood could have filled Mediterranean in less than two years
Discovery of distinctive channel, calculations of possible water movement suggest fast and furious flow formed the sea
A cataclysmic flood could have filled the Mediterranean Sea — which millions of years ago was a dry basin — like a bathtub in the space of less than two years. A new model suggests that at the flood’s peak water poured from the Atlantic into the Mediterranean basin at a rate one thousand times the flow of the Amazon River, according to calculations published in the Dec. 10 Nature.
Author:  Lisa Grossman
Shows: 1416
10.12.2009 At Stanford, nanotubes + ink + paper = instant battery
Dip an ordinary piece of paper into ink infused with carbon nanotubes and silver nanowires, and it turns into a battery or supercapacitor. Crumple the piece of paper, and it still works. Stanford researcher Yi Cui sees many uses for this new way of storing electricity.
Author:  JANELLE WEAVER
Shows: 1170
10.12.2009 Dark Matter Discovered? Don't Bet on It
Rumors are swirling around the blogosphere that a team of physicists may have finally detected particles of dark matter, the mysterious stuff whose gravity appears to hold galaxies together. If those rumors are true, the discovery would surely be one of the most important of all time. But don't book tickets to Stockholm just yet. Given the same team's previously published negative results and the relatively modest increase in the size of their data set since then, experts say, it's all but certain that the new find is of marginal statistical significance.
Author:  Adrian Cho
Shows: 1341
10.12.2009 New Findings Say Mars Methane Comes from Life or Water — or Both

A new paper that will be published Wednesday rules out the possibility that methane is delivered to Mars by meteorites, boosting the idea that the short-lived gas perhaps could be generated by either life or water, or maybe even both. Microorganisms living in the Martian soil could be producing methane gas as a by-product of their metabolic processes, or methane might be created as a result of reactions between volcanic rock and water. Either way, the prospect is exciting.
Author:  Nancy Atkinson
Shows: 1231
10.12.2009 Frog embryos listen for bad vibrations to avoid snakes

To escape being a snake's lunch, tree frog embryos listen out for bad vibrations.

The jelly-coated eggs of the Central American red-eyed tree frog are laid on vegetation overhanging ponds and can hatch up to three days early if they sense that a snake is approaching. Michael Caldwell at Boston University and colleagues wanted to know how they distinguished between predators and false alarms like torrential rain.

Author:  Shanta Barley
Shows: 1986
09.12.2009 Life on Mars Theory Boosted by New Methane Study
Scientists have ruled out the possibility that methane is delivered to Mars by meteorites, raising fresh hopes that the gas might be generated by life on the red planet, in research published in Earth and Planetary Science Letters.
Shows: 902
09.12.2009 Maize Was Passed from Group to Group of Southwestern Hunter-Gatherers, Study Suggests
An international group of anthropologists offers a new theory about the diffusion of maize to the Southwestern United States and the impact it had.
Shows: 1117
08.12.2009 Rudiments of Language Discovered in Monkeys

Campbell’s monkeys appear to combine the same calls in different ways, using rules of grammar that turn sound into language.

Whether their rudimentary syntax echoes the speech of humanity’s evolutionary ancestors, or represents an emergence of language unrelated to our own, is unclear. Either way, they’re far more sophisticated than we thought.

Author:  Brandon Keim
Shows: 1489
08.12.2009 The hunt for a perfect fishy father
Female scissortail sergeants assess potential partners with 'test' eggs.

Female fish often entrust males with eggs for safekeeping — but how can they be sure that the males are up to the task?

An ecologist has now come up with evidence to support a 17-year-old hypothesis suggesting that some females try out potential mates with a small batch of 'test' eggs before breeding with them.

Author:  Daniel Cressey
Shows: 1208
07.12.2009 Tomatoes can 'eat' insects
Garden vegetables such as tomatoes and potatoes have been found to be deadly killers on a par with Venus fly traps, according to research.

Botanists have discovered for the first time that the plants are carnivorous predators who kill insects in order to "self-fertilise" themselves.

Author:  Richard Alleyne
Shows: 902
07.12.2009 What Exalts Stradivarius? Not Varnish, Study Says

In a finding that is sure to add to one of the longest-running debates in music, a detailed analysis of the varnish on five instruments made by Antonio Stradivari reveals that he coated the wood with a rather humdrum mix of oil and resin. Those looking to the varnish as the secret to the master Italian violin maker’s renown, the study suggests, had best look elsewhere.
Author:  HENRY FOUNTAIN
Shows: 1336
07.12.2009 Single-Atom Transistor Discovered
Researchers from Helsinki University of Technology (Finland), University of New South Wales (Australia), and University of Melbourne (Australia) have succeeded in building a working transistor, whose active region composes only of a single phosphorus atom in silicon.
Shows: 901
07.12.2009 Deep structure imaged under Hawaii
Seismic experiment gives best evidence yet for mantle plumes.

Geologists have obtained the best image yet of a plume of hot rock that rises from Earth's deep mantle and fuels the volcanoes of the Hawaiian islands.
Author:  Brendan Borrell
Shows: 1177
04.12.2009 Targeting microRNA knocks out hepatitis C
Blocking a small molecule, a new drug reduces levels of the virus, chimp study shows

If the Bible’s David were a modern doctor, he might appreciate a new strategy aimed at stopping a Goliath health threat: Bringing down the hepatitis C virus with the help of tiny, precisely targeted molecules.

Author:  Tina Hesman Saey
Shows: 998
03.12.2009 Antarctica was climate refuge during great extinction
The cool climate of Antarctica was a refuge for animals fleeing climate change during the biggest mass extinction in Earth's history, suggests a new fossil study. The discovery may have implications for how modern animals will adapt to global warming.
Author:  Shanta Barley
Shows: 877
03.12.2009 Music and Speech Based on Human Biology, New Evidence Shows

A pair of studies by Duke University neuroscientists shows powerful new evidence of a deep biological link between human music and speech.
Shows: 874
03.12.2009 Fatherless Mice Live Longer

The key to a long life might be having two mothers and no father, at least for mice. A team of researchers has found that the rodents live nearly 30% longer when they are genetically engineered to carry genes from two females but no males. The finding may be a step toward understanding why the females of many mammalian species outlive their male counterparts.
Author:  Dennis Normile
Shows: 1442
02.12.2009 Smallest orchid in the world is found

Tiny transparent flower from Ecuador one of 60 new species discovered by botanist


The smallest species of orchid in the world has been discovered hidden among the roots of a larger plant in a nature reserve in Ecuador.
Author:  Lewis Smith
Shows: 2135
02.12.2009 Loneliness is contagious, study suggests
Staying socially connected may be just as important for public health as washing your hands and covering your cough. A new study suggests that feelings of loneliness can spread through social networks like the common cold.

“People on the edge of the network spread their loneliness to others and then cut their ties,” says Nicholas Christakis of Harvard Medical School in Boston, a coauthor of the new study in the December Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. “It’s like the edge of a sweater: You start pulling at it and it unravels the network.”
Author:  Lisa Grossman
Shows: 1472
01.12.2009 Early Snowball Earth may have melted to a mudball
THE idea that Earth was entirely frozen over about 700 million years ago - the so-called Snowball Earth hypothesis - poses one small problem: how did our planet thaw out? The conundrum could be explained if the Earth was more mudball than snowball.
Shows: 1511
01.12.2009 Elusive triangular snowflakes explained
Dust particles, wind and aerodynamics could steer some flakes toward a three-sided fate

Flurries of questions about mysterious triangle-shaped snowflakes may soon subside, thanks to new research on snowflake formation. Most snowflakes are hexagons because of the arrangement of hydrogen bonds in the water molecule. But the new study, appearing online at arxiv.org (http://arxiv.org/abs/0911.4267) and in an upcoming issue of The Microscope, suggests that after hexagonal flakes, oddball triangular flakes are the most prevalent.
Author:  Laura Sanders
Shows: 2901
30.11.2009 New Fossil Plant Discovery Links Patagonia to New Guinea in a Warmer Past
Fossil plants are windows to the past, providing us with clues as to what our planet looked like millions of years ago. Not only do fossils tell us which species were present before human-recorded history, but they can provide information about the climate and how and when lineages may have dispersed around the world. Identifying fossil plants can be tricky, however, when plant organs fail to be preserved or when only a few sparse parts can be found.
Shows: 1120
30.11.2009 Greening of Sahara Desert Triggered Early Human Migrations out of Africa
A team of scientists from the NIOZ Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research and the University of Bremen (Germany) has determined that a major change in the climate of the Sahara and Sahel region of North Africa facilitated early human migrations from the African continent.
Shows: 797
30.11.2009 Map of fundamental brain receptor opens doors to treatments.
Map of fundamental brain receptor opens doors to treatments.

The full structure of a fiendishly complicated and important brain protein has been determined by researchers, potentially enabling the development of new treatments for a wealth of neurological disorders.
Author:  Daniel Cressey
Shows: 1002
30.11.2009 Royal Society marks 350th anniversary by publishing documents
Original documents recording landmark moments in the history of science have been published online to mark the 350th anniversary of the Royal Society.

For the first time, papers published by the world's oldest scientific institution have been made available to the public via the internet.

Shows: 1463
30.11.2009 Coral Reefs Act Like Sunscreen
Living on a coral reef is a bit like living in a tanning bed. As the sun's rays shine through the water and reflect off the reef, they strike corals, their symbiotic photosynthetic algae, and other inhabitants from above and below. So what keeps these creatures from being fried? A new study suggests that coral acts as a sunscreen, absorbing UV light and limiting the harm it inflicts on the reef's denizens.
Author:  Charles Choi
Shows: 1914
27.11.2009 'Simple' bacterium shows surprising complexity

The inner workings of a supposedly simple bacterial cell have turned out to be much more sophisticated than expected.

An in-depth "blueprint" of an apparently minimalist species has revealed details that challenge preconceptions about how genes operate. It also brings closer the day when it may be possible to create artificial life.

Author:  Andy Coghlan
Shows: 1321
27.11.2009 Ladybugs Taken Hostage by Wasps

Are ladybugs being overtaken by wasps? A Université de Montréal entomologist is investigating a type of wasp (Dinocampus coccinellae) present in Quebec that forces ladybugs (Coccinella maculata) to carry their larvae. These wasps lay their eggs on the ladybug's body, a common practice in the insect world, yet they don't kill their host.
Shows: 1241
27.11.2009 Kaguya Discovers a Lava Tube on the Moon

Future lunar astronauts may want to brush up on their spelunking skills: the first lava tube has been discovered on the moon.

In a recent paper published in Geophysical Research Letters, Junichi Haruyama and colleagues report that they have discovered a mysterious hole in the lunar surface in high resolution images from the Kaguya spacecraft. The hole is 65 meters in diameter and is located in the volcanic Marius Hills region on the near side of the moon, right in the middle of a long sinuous rille. Sinuous rilles are thought to be formed by flowing lava, either on the surface or in enclosed lava tubes.
Author:  Ryan Anderson
Shows: 1855
26.11.2009 Video: Saturn’s Spectacular Aurora in Action
How can you not love Cassini? The latest treat NASA’s spacecraft has provided us is the first ever movie of Saturn’s incredible aruroras.
Author:  Betsy Mason
Shows: 2170
25.11.2009 Cute New Chameleon Discovered While Being Eaten by Snake

A new species of chameleon, measuring just 6 inches from snout to tail, has been discovered in east Tanzania’s mountains.

Differentiated from other species by the pattern of scales on its head and the flat shape of its nose appendage, it was first spotted while being eaten by a tree snake. The snake dropped the reptile, and it was collected by scientists.

Author:  Alexis Madrigal
Shows: 2169
25.11.2009 New hydrogen-storage method discovered
Scientists at the Carnegie Institution have found for the first time that high pressure can be used to make a unique hydrogen-storage material. The discovery paves the way for an entirely new way to approach the hydrogen-storage problem. The researchers found that the normally unreactive, noble gas xenon combines with molecular hydrogen (H2) under pressure to form a previously unknown solid with unusual bonding chemistry.
Shows: 1835
25.11.2009 One for the Ages: Bristlecone Pines Break 4,650-Year Growth Record
Bristlecone pine trees dot the White Mountains in eastern California, giving the stark and rocky landscape one of its few highly visible signs of life. These gnarly-barked trees can survive at altitudes of up to 3,470 meters, although their growth rate at these heights is limited because of cold temperatures.
Author:  Carina Storrs
Shows: 1388
24.11.2009 LHC smashes protons together for first time

The Large Hadron Collider bashed protons together for the first time on Monday, inaugurating a new era in the quest to uncover nature's deepest secrets.

Housed in a 27-kilometre circular underground tunnel near Geneva, Switzerland, the LHC is the world's most powerful particle accelerator, designed to collide protons together at unprecedented energies.

Author:  David Shiga
Shows: 1887
24.11.2009 In the Dark: Unusual Deep-Sea Species Documented
The darkest reaches of the ocean have long been thought of as a desolate biome. But as researchers send equipment down to document these mysterious depths, they are quickly learning not only that it is teaming with life, but also that it boasts surprising diversity.
Author:  Katherine Harmon
Shows: 2706
23.11.2009 Early Volcanoes Minted Nickel
Those spare nickels in your pocket might not be there without the help of ancient volcanoes that blasted sulfur dioxide into the sky billions of years ago. The discovery solves a mystery that has dogged researchers for decades, says geochemist Edward Ripley of Indiana University, Bloomington, who was not affiliated with the study.
Author:  Phil Berardelli
Shows: 1527
23.11.2009 Europe puts brakes on fusion project
The European Union (EU) is backing away from a 2018 start date for ITER, a multi-billion-euro fusion reactor under construction in the south of France.

At an ITER council meeting on 18–19 November, which was held near the reactor's site in St Paul-lez-Durance, delegates from the EU told the project's six other member states that the start date was no longer realistic, according to a source close to the negotiations. The two-day meeting concluded earlier this afternoon.
Author:  Geoff Brumfiel
Shows: 1524
23.11.2009 Physicists Move One Step Closer to Quantum Computing
Physicists at UC Santa Barbara have made an important advance in electrically controlling quantum states of electrons, a step that could help in the development of quantum computing. The work is published online November 20 on the Science Express Web site.
Shows: 1475
23.11.2009 Indonesian 'hobbits' are a separate species

Tiny ‘hobbits’ whose remains were discovered on a remote Indonesian island are a new human species and not just dwarfs, new evidence suggests.

Author:  Kate Devlin
Shows: 2261
19.11.2009 Ripples in space divide classical and quantum worlds
WHY can't we be in two places at the same time? The simple answer is that it's because large objects appear not to be subject to the same wacky laws of quantum mechanics that rule subatomic particles. But why not - and how big does something have to be for quantum physics no longer to apply? Ripples in space-time could hold the answer.
Shows: 1340
19.11.2009 Bigger Not Necessarily Better, When It Comes to Brains
Tiny insects could be as intelligent as much bigger animals, despite only having a brain the size of a pinhead, say scientists at Queen Mary, University of London.
Shows: 1253
18.11.2009 Heart Disease Found in Egyptian Mummies
Hardening of the arteries has been detected in Egyptian mummies, some as old as 3,500 years, suggesting that the factors causing heart attack and stroke are not only modern ones; they afflicted ancient people, too.
Shows: 1677
18.11.2009 Keeping the young Earth cosy
Nitrogen now stored in the planetary crust and mantle may have prevented the early Earth from freezing, scientists suggest. The study lends weight to the idea that on geological timescales atmospheric pressure helps to regulate climate and habitability of Earth-like planets.
Author:  Quirin Schiermeier
Shows: 1852
17.11.2009 Right-Handed Chimpanzees Provide Clues to the Origin of Human Language
Most of the linguistic functions in humans are controlled by the left cerebral hemisphere. A study of captive chimpanzees at the Yerkes National Primate Research Center (Atlanta, Georgia), reported in the January 2010 issue of Elsevier's Cortex, suggests that this "hemispheric lateralization" for language may have its evolutionary roots in the gestural communication of our common ancestors. A large majority of the chimpanzees in the study showed a significant bias towards right-handed gestures when communicating, which may reflect a similar dominance of the left hemisphere for communication in chimpanzees as that seen for language functions in humans.
Shows: 1343
16.11.2009 Potential Treatment for Huntington's Disease
Investigators at Burnham Institute for Medical Research (Burnham), the University of British Columbia's Centre for Molecular Medicine and Therapeutics and the University of California, San Diego have found that normal synaptic activity in nerve cells (the electrical activity in the brain that allows nerve cells to communicate with one another) protects the brain from the misfolded proteins associated with Huntington's disease.
Shows: 1246
16.11.2009 LHC to Finally Start Next Week, Again
CERN is reporting that the Large Hadron Collider could circulate particle beams through both of its pipes in just over a week. If all goes well, the first collisions would begin soon after that.
Author:  Betsy Mason
Shows: 1925
16.11.2009 Lunar Impactor Finds Clear Evidence of Water Ice on Moon

There is water on the moon, NASA confirmed today, and lots of it.

In the first look at results from the LCROSS mission, which sent a probe crashing into the Cabeus crater near the moon’s south pole, NASA’s main investigator said their instruments clearly detected water, despite the underwhelming plume.

Author:  Alexis Madrigal
Shows: 1761
13.11.2009 Can A Plant Be Altruistic?
Although plants have the ability to sense and respond to other plants, their ability to recognize kin and act altruistically has been the subject of few studies. The authors explored kin recognition in Impatiens pallida (yellow jewelweed). By moving their resources into leaves, these plants not only positively affected their own growth, but also negatively affected their competitors' growth. This is the first instance where researchers demonstrated that a plant's response to an aboveground cue is dependent upon the presence of a belowground cue.
Shows: 1156
13.11.2009 Mini ice age took hold of Europe in months
JUST months - that's how long it took for Europe to be engulfed by an ice age. The scenario, which comes straight out of Hollywood blockbuster The Day After Tomorrow, was revealed by the most precise record of the climate from palaeohistory ever generated.
Shows: 1737
12.11.2009 NASA Reproduces A Building Block Of Life In Laboratory
NASA scientists studying the origin of life have reproduced uracil, a key component of our hereditary material, in the laboratory. They discovered that an ice sample containing pyrimidine exposed to ultraviolet radiation under space-like conditions produces this essential ingredient of life.
Shows: 1015
12.11.2009 Evolution of a single gene linked to language
Two tiny changes in the sequence of one gene could have helped install the mechanisms of speech and language in humans.
Author:  Kerri Smith
Shows: 2638
12.11.2009 Planets May Affect the Chemistry of Their Stars
Planets are, by and large, at the mercy of their stars. Not only do stars provide a ready energy source of radiated light and heat, but the mass and gravitational pull of stars flat-out dwarfs the summed masses and pulls of any orbiting companions. In our solar system, which has more planets—regardless of where one stands on the Pluto debate—than any other planetary system we know of so far, the sun still makes up more than 99.8 percent of its system's mass.
Author:  Mark Fischetti
Shows: 1079
11.11.2009 Bad Decisions May Be Contagious
Like the flu, a person's emotional state can be contagious. Watch someone cry, and you'll likely feel sad; think about the elderly, and you'll tend to walk slower. Now a study suggests that we can also catch someone else's irrational thought processes.
Author:  Michael Torrice
Shows: 1041
11.11.2009 Scientists unveil plant DNA barcode
Scientists meeting at the third International Barcode of Life conference in Mexico City this week have agreed on a region of DNA that will be used to identify plants by genus in a new system of codification.
Author:  Rachel Cooper
Shows: 1066
11.11.2009 Antarctica Glacier Retreat Creates New Carbon Dioxide Store; Has Beneficial Impact On Climate Change
Large blooms of tiny marine plants called phytoplankton are flourishing in areas of open water left exposed by the recent and rapid melting of ice shelves and glaciers around the Antarctic Peninsula. This remarkable colonisation is having a beneficial impact on climate change. As the blooms die back phytoplankton sinks to the sea-bed where it can store carbon for thousands or millions of years.
Shows: 856
10.11.2009 Stone Age humans crossed Sahara in the rain
Wet spells in the Sahara may have opened the door for early human migration. According to new evidence, water-dependent trees and shrubs grew there between 120,000 and 45,000 years ago. This suggests that changes in the weather helped early humans cross the desert on their way out of Africa.
Author:  Jeff Hecht
Shows: 989
09.11.2009 Signature of Antimatter Detected in Lightning
Designed to scan the heavens thousands to billions of light-years beyond the solar system, the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has now recorded some more down-to-Earth signals. During its first 14 months of operation, the flying observatory has detected 17 gamma-ray flashes associated with terrestrial lightning storms.
Author:  Ron Cowen
Shows: 1747
09.11.2009 Baguette-toting bird stalls atom smasher
This is too weird: A bird reportedly has dropped a "bit of baguette" onto the world's largest atom smasher, causing the machine to short out for a period of time.
Shows: 1809
09.11.2009 Early Scents Really Do Get Etched in the Brain
Common experience tells us that particular scents of childhood can leave quite an impression, for better or for worse. Now, researchers reporting the results of a brain imaging study online on November 5th in Current Biology, a Cell Press publication, show that first scents really do enjoy a "privileged" status in the brain.
Shows: 888
09.11.2009 The DNA of the domesticated horse shows evolution at work
THE genomes of many mammals have now been completed, including the cow, the dog, the chimpanzee and, of course, the human. This week it was the turn of the horse to have its DNA sequence decoded. With it emerged further evidence of how horses have been close human companions and, like other mammals that share an evolutionary history with man, how they could help the understanding of hereditary diseases. But there was also a surprise: horses have a newly forming part in their genetic make-up which shows the evolutionary process in action in a way that has not been seen before.
Shows: 1700
06.11.2009 Early Life Hedged Its Bets to Survive
By forcing bacteria to evolve in ever-changing conditions, scientists have induced a behavior in which colonies formed by microbes with identical genes take radically different forms, as if one sibling in a set of identical quadruplets could sprout gills.
Author:  Brandon Keim
Shows: 865
05.11.2009 Hydrogen Peroxide May Tell Time For Living Cells
If a circadian rhythm is like an orchestra -- the united expression of the rhythms of millions of cells -- a common chemical may serve as the conductor, or at least as the baton.
Shows: 797
05.11.2009 Study Suggests Handedness May Affect Body Perception
There are areas in the brain devoted to our arms, legs, and various parts of our bodies. The way these areas are distributed throughout the brain are known as "body maps" and there are some significant differences in these maps between left- and right-handed people. For example, in left-handed people, there is an equal amount of brain area devoted to the left and right arms in both hemispheres. However, for right-handed people, there is more cortical area associated with right arm than the left.
Shows: 801
05.11.2009 El Niño Cycles Threaten Some New World Monkey Populations
El Niño conditions in the Pacific Ocean wreak havoc on monkey populations, either in the midst of the periodic hot and dry spells or in their chilly aftermath, according to the results of a new study.
Author:  Carina Storrs
Shows: 734
05.11.2009 Supernova mystery solved?
Two astrophysicists believe that they have dispelled the mystery surrounding an object at the centre of a distant supernova remnant.
Author:  Geoff Brumfiel
Shows: 855
04.11.2009 Tiny Laser-scanning Microscope Images Brain Cells In Freely Moving Animals
By building a tiny microscope small enough to be carried around on a rats` head, scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics in Tübingen, Germany, have found a way to study the complex activity of many brain cells simultaneously while animals are free to move around. With this new technology scientists can actually see how the brain cells operate while the animal is behaving naturally, giving rise to immense new insights into the understanding of perception and attention.
Shows: 881
03.11.2009 How Did the Chinese Create Snow?
"Everybody complains about the weather," the old saying goes, "But nobody does anything about it." That is, until now. A Nov. 1 snowfall in Beijing — the city's earliest since 1987 — is due, Chinese scientists say to a campaign of "cloud seeding" to encourage precipitation. If true, it's the wettest success yet in a long-standing effort to artificially bring moisture to the parched northern regions of China. So how'd they do it?
Shows: 775
03.11.2009 Thinking negatively can boost your memory, study finds
Bad moods can actually be good for you, with an Australian study finding that being sad makes people less gullible, improves their ability to judge others and also boosts memory.
Shows: 1882
03.11.2009 Gene Therapy Repairs Injured Human Donor Lungs For The First Time
For the first time, scientists in the McEwen Centre for Regenerative Medicine, University Health Network have successfully used gene therapy to repair injured human donor lungs, making them potentially suitable for transplantation into patients. This technique could significantly expand the number of donor lungs by using organs that are currently discarded, and improve outcomes after transplantation.
Shows: 945
02.11.2009 Scientists Discover Influenza's Achilles Heel: Antioxidants
As the nation copes with a shortage of vaccines for H1N1 influenza, a team of Alabama researchers have raised hopes that they have found an Achilles' heel for all strains of the flu -- antioxidants.
Shows: 923
30.10.2009 Did Ancient Earth Go Nuclear?
A surge of oxygen littered early Earth with millions of tiny nuclear reactors, blasting ancient life with radiation. That's the scenario a team of researchers has proposed to account for the disappearance of a radioactive mineral from the geological record. If true, this primordial nuclear age could have played a role in the evolution of early life forms.

Author:  By Phil Berardelli
Shows: 924
30.10.2009 Gamma-ray observations shrink known grain size of spacetime
Tininess of speed differences between photons from a gamma-ray burst uphold special relativity theory

Smaller dots, Georges, please. In their efforts to unify quantum theory and gravity, theoretical physicists have likened spacetime to a Georges Seurat painting, composed of tiny dots or lumps that meld to form a seemingly smooth picture. But if spacetime really does have a grainy structure on the smallest scales, the cosmic painter may need to get finer brushes, a new study reveals.

Author:  By Ron Cowen
Shows: 884
30.10.2009 'Moonlighting' Molecules Discovered; Researchers Uncover New Kink In Gene Control
Since the completion of the human genome sequence, a question has baffled researchers studying gene control: How is it that humans, being far more complex than the lowly yeast, do not proportionally contain in our genome significantly more gene-control proteins?
Shows: 859
29.10.2009 Birds Use Light, Not Magnetic Field, to Migrate
A cell in the eye may be worth two in the beak, at least when it comes to a migratory bird’s magnetic compass. In European robins, a visual center in the brain and light-sensing cells in the eye — not magnetic sensing cells in the beak — allow the songbirds to sense which direction is north and migrate correctly, a new study finds. The study, appearing Oct. 29 in Nature, may improve conservation efforts for migratory birds.
Author:  By Laura Sanders, Science News
Shows: 1026
29.10.2009 Rot-resistant Wheat Could Save Farmers Millions
CSIRO researchers have identified wheat and barley lines resistant to Crown Rot -- a disease that costs Australian wheat and barley farmers $79 million in lost yield every year.
Shows: 882
28.10.2009 To Mosquitoes, We Smell Like Bird
After its favorite birds have migrated away, the mosquito that transmits the West Nile virus starts snacking on people. Now researchers think they know why. Humans and birds produce a common smell that the mosquitoes find irresistible.
Author:  By Martin Enserink
Shows: 845
28.10.2009 Secrets In A Seed: Clues Into The Evolution Of The First Flowers
Approximately 120-130 million years ago, one of the most significant events in the history of the Earth occurred: the first flowering plants, or angiosperms, arose. In the late 1800s, Darwin referred to their development as an "abominable mystery." To this day, scientists are still challenged by this "mystery" of how angiosperms originated, rapidly diversified, and rose to dominance.

Shows: 911
27.10.2009 High testosterone linked to miserly behaviour

If you're looking to haggle, steer clear of big, beefy salesmen. The same hormone responsible for their brawn may also reduce their generosity, new research suggests. 

"Our broad conclusion is that testosterone causes men essentially to be stingy," says Karen Redwine, a neuro-economist at Whittier College in California, who presented the work at the Society for Neuroscience's annual meeting in Chicago last week. 

A previous study of 17 City of London traders found that morning testosterone levels correlated with each day's gains and losses, with more of the hormone associated with a profit. But that study didn't establish a cause-effect relationship between testosterone and shrewdness. 

To make this case, Redwine and her colleague Paul Zak, at the Claremont Graduate University in California, gave a testosterone-containing gel to 25 male university students, and then tested their generosity. All the participants also got a placebo cream with no testosterone, either a few days before or after the testosterone boost. Neither the researchers nor the participants knew which was which until the end of the study. 

Power gel

The testosterone cream worked. The next day, twice as much of the potent sex hormone coursed through the veins of volunteers, on average. 

The students then played a simple economic game with another participant via a computer. One volunteer is tasked with splitting $10 with another volunteer in any way he likes. The other volunteer either accepts the offer or rejects it as unfair, in which case no one gets any money. Each volunteer played this game in both roles, on and off the testosterone gel. 

Overall, the testosterone cream caused a 27 per cent reduction in the generosity of the offers, from averages of $2.15 to $1.57, Redwine and Zak found. 

A more potent variant of testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), exerted an even stronger influence on behaviour. Men with the most DHT in their bloodstream offered their partners a paltry $0.55 of the $10, while men with the least amount of DHT tendered $3.65, on average. 

DHT was also associated with a propensity to punish unfair offers. Men with the highest levels rejected offers below $4, while men with low levels of the androgen only punished if the offer was below $2.15, the researchers found. 

Selfish hormones

There are two ways of looking at the findings, Redwine says. On one hand, testosterone pushed men to demand a larger split of the money, whether they were making an offer or deciding to accept or reject one. 

Yet by rejecting unfair offers, testosterone-fuelled volunteers are actually enforcing a social order that calls for a 50-50 split. "People are selfish, but they're selfless as well, and it's not understood why the behaviour shifts," she says. 

One biological factor could be the dynamics between testosterone and another hormone called oxytocin. Sometimes called the cuddle chemical, oxytocin also influences generosity. In a 2007 study, Zak's team found that oxytocin administration boosted generosity in the same game by 80 per cent

Redwine notes that testosterone blocks the action of oxytocin in the brain. "It's possible that by creating these alpha males we actually inhibited oxytocin," she says.

Author:  by Ewen Callaway
Shows: 855
27.10.2009 Ethanol tanks

ONCE upon a time, biofuels were thought of as a solution to fossil-fuel dependence. Now they are widely seen as a boondoggle to agribusiness that hurts the environment and cheats taxpayers. A report commissioned by the United Nations endorses neither extreme. It gives high marks to some crop-based fuels and lambasts others. Meanwhile, two papers published in Science, a leading research journal, provide further reasons for caution. One suggests that the knock-on effects of growing biofuel crops, in terms of displaced food crops and extra fertiliser (an important source of a greenhouse gas called nitrous oxide), make the whole enterprise risky. The other points out a dangerous inconsistency in the way the Earth’s carbon balance-sheet is drawn up for the purposes of international law.

The UN report gives ethanol from sugar cane (which Brazil makes) a clean bill of health. In some circumstances it does better than just “zero emission”. If grown and processed correctly, it has “negative emission”—pulling CO2 out of the atmosphere, rather than adding it. America’s use of maize for biofuel is less efficient. Properly planted and processed, it does cut emissions; done poorly, it is more polluting than petrol. As to biodiesel palm oil grown on cleared tropical forest, when the destruction of the trees and release of CO2 from the cleared soil are accounted for, the crop is filthy—and worse than that if the forest was growing in peat, as is often the case.

The amount of ethanol produced for transport tripled from 17 billion litres in 2000 to 52 billion litres in 2007 and is set to rise further. But the world’s population is also rising, so competition for land between fuel and food is hotting up. This competition is the subject of Jerry Melillo’s paper in Science. Dr Melillo, of the Woods Hole Marine Biological Laboratory, and his colleagues have attempted to model how an expansion of biofuels might change world agriculture during the 21st century. They concentrate on the likely future—cellulosic biofuels made from whole plants such as fast-growing grasses, rather than the food-cum-biofuel crops of today. They reckon Africa is the best place to grow biofuels, and the one that will lead to most carbon capture in the long run. But they also show that the widespread growth of biofuel crops is likely to cause a net global release of greenhouse gases during the first half of the century, as land is cleared and fertilisers are scattered liberally. In the right circumstances the CO2 account, they reckon, could move into profit by mid-century, but the nitrous oxide account never does.

Tim Searchinger’s Science paper, meanwhile, looks at the way the accounts are drawn up in the here and now. Dr Searchinger, who works at Princeton University, and his collaborators point out that the rules for assessing compliance with the Kyoto protocol (which are also included in the version of America’s climate bill that passed the House of Representatives) are biased in favour of biofuels because they fail to account for emissions from land cleared to grow such fuels. Combine that observation with Dr Melillo’s modelling and you have a recipe for some perverse incentives indeed.

Sadly, settled international standards on biofuels or on a trading system that includes their carbon-cutting benefits are probably a long way off. Two more items on the “too busy to do” list of the Copenhagen conference on climate change.

Shows: 940
27.10.2009 Mantis Shrimp Eyes Might Inspire New High-Def Devices

In the marvelously sensitive eyes of mantis shrimps, scientists have found cells that could inspire an overhaul of humanity’s comparatively clumsy communications hardware.

Mechanical analogs of their eyes “are among the most important and commonly used optical components, and the cellular structure we describe significantly outperforms these current optics,” write researchers in a study published Sunday in Nature Photonics.

Mantis shrimps are reef-dwelling marine crustaceans who trace their evolutionary lineage straight back to the Cambrian age 500 million years ago, before vertebrates had even evolved. They’re so biologically unique that biologists call them “shrimps from Mars.”

They possess the animal kingdom’s most complicated eyes, capable of distinguishing between 100,000 colors — 10 times as many as humans — and seeing circular polarized light, or CPL, which can’t be detected by any other creature.

 

That ability was described in a study published last March in Current Biology. In the Nature Photonicspaper, researchers unveil the biological underpinning of this optical wizardry, which is performed by specialized cells arranged in tightly packed tubular bundles. The cells change the rotation of photons as they pass through, converting CPL’s tight spirals to the straightforward, up-and-down wavelength of linear polarized light.

This lets mantis shrimp eyes process CPL. The same trick is performed by devices called quarter-wave plates, which convert polarized light signals inside DVD and CD players. Quarter-wave plates are also used inside satellite transmitters and other high-tech communication systems, which rely on the data-dense, loss-free transmission properties of circular polarized light.

But even our best quarter-wave plates can only detect circular polarized light in a few colors. The quarter-wave plates of mantis shrimps work across the visual spectrum, for any color of CPL. And if human engineers can mimic their designs, they might create “a new category of optical devices,” the researchers write.

“The level of structural complexity and precision obtainable through natural self-assembly of biological materials far surpasses any current material manufacturing capabilities,” they conclude.

Author:  By Brandon Keim
Shows: 899
27.10.2009 Photonic Thermos

The pure vacuum of a thermos is not the best possible insulator for keeping your soup warm. Last year a team found theoretically that a structure known as a photonic crystal could block heat flow even more effectively than vacuum. In the October Physical Review B they present a complete theory explaining the phenomenon and reveal that the structure's insulating ability is surprisingly independent of its structural details. Their work suggests that photonic crystals, which have promising applications in communications and computing, might one day be used for their thermal properties, perhaps in devices that turn the sun's heat into usable energy.

 

Hot soup in a thermos is surrounded by a vacuum between the inner and outer walls, which prevents heat from conducting directly through the sides, as it would if the walls were a one-piece solid. But the soup still loses heat by "glowing" in infrared light because the light radiated through the walls takes energy away with it.

Shanhui Fan of Stanford University in California and his colleagues wondered if photonic crystals--periodic structures famous for blocking narrow frequency ranges of light--could block the broad range of infrared frequencies radiated by a warm body. Last year they studied a stack of alternating silicon and vacuum layers theoretically, calculating the thermal conductance--the ease with which infrared photons could pass through. The team evaluated different layer-thicknesses, numbers of layers, and temperatures and showed that for a 100-micron-thick stack containing 10 one-micron-thick silicon layers, at room temperature and above, the thermal conductance plunged to about half that of a vacuum [1]. So soup in a photonic crystal thermos would stay hot longer than in a normal thermos.

 

In their new paper, the team undertakes a complete theoretical analysis of the problem, rather than solving specific cases. Photonic crystal theorists usually calculate the narrow ranges of frequency blocked by the structure, the so-called band gaps. But given the very large number of gaps over the wide range of thermal radiation, Fan and his colleagues used a different approach, which they call a statistical theory. They calculated the fraction of all frequencies that the photonic crystal allows through. They found that this fraction, and therefore the thermal conductance, doesn't depend on the thickness of the individual layers but only on how fast light travels in the solid layers--the solid's index of refraction. This result was unusual, says Fan. "Normally, for a photonic crystal, for other applications, the detail of the structure is very important." But with such a large swath of frequency, structure-induced increases or decreases in the sizes of the many band gaps appear to largely cancel out and leave the transmitted fraction unchanged.

 

Steven Johnson of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology says the results suggest researchers have less control than they thought. "The conductance is mainly determined by the available materials and not by the layer geometry," so researchers have fewer ways of fine-tuning the conductance.

 

The team plans to study photonic crystals with irregular structures, which they think could be even better insulators. Fan says that controlling heat flow with photonic crystals could be useful for researchers trying to capture the sun's heat as an energy source. "The issue of allowing optical radiation to pass through while keeping heat within is very important for solar-thermal applications," he says.

References:

[1] W. T. Lau, J.-T. Shen, G. Veronis, S. Fan, and P. V. Braun, "Tuning Coherent Radiative Thermal Conductance in Multilayer Photonic Crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 103106 (2008).
Author:  Lauren Schenkman
Shows: 809
26.10.2009 Nothing to Fear From the Big Bald Wolf
Shortly after gray wolves were reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park in 1995, Daniel MacNulty was puzzled by something. The breeding pair in one of the packs frequently stopped during their elk hunts to rest. "They sat on the sidelines while their offspring did the work," says MacNulty, an ecologist from Michigan Technological University in Houghton. "After their kids made the kill, they would amble up to feed."

Laziness? Not at all. The two were almost 5 years old, which MacNulty has learned is fairly old age for wolves. His new study is one of the first to look at the effects of aging in predators, and it raises questions about current methods of controlling wolf populations. "It's an exciting paper and should become a classic," says ecologist John Fryxell of the University of Guelph in Canada.

MacNulty has followed 94 radio-collared wolves in Yellowstone for 13 years, closely monitoring their hunts for two 30-day periods during each of those years. His research on these individual canids shows that wolves age rapidly. Indeed, by age 2 they're in their hunting prime, drawing on youthful endurance and sudden bursts of speed to take down elk. But just as quickly, they lose that talent, MacNulty's team reports online in Ecology Letters. "Wolves are old when they're 4," he says. The median life span for wolves in Yellowstone is 6 years, although some have lived as long as 10. Those older wolves manage to survive because the younger ones in their pack pick up the slack, killing elk and letting all the pack members feed. Older wolves are also heftier and may come in at the end of a hunt to use their weight to help pull down the elk, says MacNulty.

As one might expect, aging predators are good news for prey. The wolves' kill rate on elk in Yellowstone declined significantly as the number of geriatric hunters in the wolf population increased. And that could have cascading effects on the ecosystem. For instance, elk may linger and browse on woody plants when elderly wolves are around. More browsing could slow the recovery of willows and aspen trees, which have come back since the wolves' reintroduction.

Fryxell says ecologists are starting to realize that age needs to be included in models of predator-prey abundance. Game managers should pay attention as well. Most managers who want to boost numbers of elk and deer think all you need to do is kill wolves, says ecologist Christopher Wilmers of the University of California, Santa Cruz. "But this study shows you're probably increasing your problem, since you'll end up with younger wolves that kill more prey." That's because when a pack vanishes or is weakened and loses its territory, he says, younger wolves often move in. "You're better off leaving the wolves alone."

Author:  By Virginia Morell
Shows: 818
26.10.2009 Time-keeping Brain Neurons Discovered
Keeping track of time is one of the brain's most important tasks. As the brain processes the flood of sights and sounds it encounters, it must also remember when each event occurred. But how does that happen? How does your brain recall that you brushed your teeth before you took a shower, and not the other way around?

For decades, neuroscientists have theorized that the brain "time stamps" events as they happen, allowing us to keep track of where we are in time and when past events occurred. However, they couldn't find any evidence that such time stamps really existed -- until now.

An MIT team led by Institute Professor Ann Graybiel has found groups of neurons in the primate brain that code time with extreme precision. "All you do is time stamp everything, and then recalling events is easy: you go back and look through your time stamps until you see which ones are correlated with the event," she says.

That kind of precise timing control is critical for everyday tasks such as driving a car or playing the piano, as well as keeping track of past events. The discovery, reported in this week's issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, could lead to new treatments for diseases such as Parkinson's disease, where the ability to control the timing of movements is impaired.

Construction of time

The research team trained two macaque monkeys to perform a simple eye-movement task. After receiving the "go" signal, the monkeys were free to perform the task at their own speed. The researchers found neurons that consistently fired at specific times -- 100 milliseconds, 110 milliseconds, 150 milliseconds and so on -- after the "go" signal.

"Soon enough we realized we had cells keeping time, which everyone has wanted to find, but nobody has found them before," says Graybiel, who is also an investigator in MIT's McGovern Institute for Brain Research. The neurons are located in the prefrontal cortex and the striatum, both of which play important roles in learning, movement and thought control.

The new work is an elegant demonstration of how the brain represents time, says Peter Strick, professor of neurobiology at the University of Pittsburgh, who was not involved in the research. "We have sensory receptors for light, sound, touch, hot and cold, and smell, but we don't have sensory receptors for time. This is a sense constructed by the brain," he says.

Key to the team's success was a new technique that allows researchers to record electrical signals from hundreds of neurons in the brain simultaneously, and a mathematical way to analyze the brain signals, spearheaded by team members Naotaka Fujii of the RIKEN Brain Institute in Japan and Dezhe Jin of Penn State. Though this study focused on the prefrontal cortex and striatum, Graybiel says she expects other regions of the brain may also have neurons that keep time.

Graybiel suggests that the new research could help patients with Parkinson's disease, who often behave as if their brains' timekeeping functions are impaired: they have trouble performing tasks that require accurate rhythm, such as dancing, and time appears to pass more slowly for them. Rhythmic stimuli such as tapping can help them to speak more clearly.

Targeting the timekeeping neurons with neural prosthetic devices or drugs -- possibly including the natural brain chemicals dopamine and serotonin -- may help treat those Parkinson's symptoms, she says.

Future studies in this area could shed light on how the brain produces these time stamps and how this function can control behavior and learning. The work also raises questions regarding how the brain interprets the passage of time differently under different circumstances.

"Sometimes time moves quickly, and in some situations time seems to slow down. All of this ultimately has a neural representation," says Strick.

Funding: National Eye Institute, National Parkinson Foundation, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, and the Huck Institutes of the Life Sciences at Penn State University.


Journal reference:

Jin DZ, Fujii N, Graybiel AM. Neural representation of time in corticobasal ganglia circuits. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Week of Oct. 19 2009

Shows: 913
23.10.2009 Underwater town breaks antiquity record

A settlement that long ago sank into the Mediterranean Sea has been identified as the world's oldest underwater town. Pavlopetri, off the southern coast of the Pelopennese in Greece, has been dated to around 3000 BC.

Although Pavlopetriwas found in 1967, the Greek government has just announced that 5000-year-old pottery fragments have been recovered from the town, forcing a rethink of when it was first occupied.

Moreover, the government has also revealed that a further 9000 square metres of buildings, streets, and graves – plus what looks like a large ceremonial building called a megaron – have been discovered. This suggests that Pavlopetri may have been an important trading port, and provides new clues about how Neolithic people lived.

"You can find scattered huts or Palaeolithic caves [on the sea bed] which are much older, but not towns with streets, and rows of houses sharing common walls," says Nic Flemming of the National Oceanography Centre in Southampton, UK, who first discovered Pavlopetri in the 1960s and dated it to around 1500 BC.

"What we've got here is something that's 2000 or even 3000 years older than most of the submerged cities that have been studied. And its uniqueness is not just its age, but the fact that it was used as a port."

Boom town

Although settlements of similar age have been found on land, no such towns have been found on the coast. "This was effectively a massive town, with a hinterland of scattered farms in the hills, plus copper mines," says Flemming.

"It was a crossroads for seafaring, a critical transport point between the mainland and Crete, and a rich agricultural district. In terms of understanding what was happening at that time, it's extremely exciting."

The new-found buildings and structures were discovered using sector-scanning sonar, a technique originally developed for the oil and gas industry, but recently turned to underwater archaeology: for example, it was used to identify an ancient stone circle on the bottom of Lake Michigan.

More to come

Moreover, because the site is submerged, organic material such as wood or food – long since disappeared from towns from the same period that are still above the waves – may also have been preserved. "Once we start excavating this site we should learn a lot about what it was like to live in a Bronze Age town," says Jon Henderson of the University of Nottingham, UK, who co-directed the underwater survey. (Henderson talks about the work further in videos on the University of Nottingham website.)

Pavlopetri is thought to have sunk as a result of the frequent earthquakes that afflict the region.

"It's a rare find, and it is significant because, as a submerged site, it was never reoccupied and therefore represents a frozen moment of the past," adds Elias Spondylis of the Greek culture ministry.

Author:  by Linda Geddes
Shows: 862
23.10.2009 Geologist Analyzes Earliest Shell-covered Fossil Animals
The fossil remains of some of the first animals with shells, ocean-dwelling creatures that measure a few centimeters in length and date to about 520 million years ago, provide a window on evolution at this time, according to scientists. Their research indicates that these animals were larger than previously thought.

John Moore, a Ph.D. student in the Department of Earth Science at UC Santa Barbara, and his collaborators, analyzed fossils from the epoch called the Early Cambrian. During this important time in the history of the earth, there was a tremendous diversification of animal life in the oceans. Many of the major animal groups that are still alive today appeared at this time, as well as many unusual groups that went extinct. In particular, the Cambrian marked the first widespread occurrence of animals with shells or other hard parts. Many of these early animals had complex external armors containing dozens to thousands of tiny pieces. When the animals died, the armor fell apart. From the resulting jumbled puzzle pieces, Moore and his research team discerned what the animals were like, and how they are related to other animals.

 

"In our study, we focused on a strange Cambrian creature, called Cambrothyra," said Moore. He explained that Cambrothyrafossils look like tiny jars or vases, a few tenths of a millimeter long. They have been found in only a few locations in central China. The research team collected rocks from China's Shaanxi Province and brought them back to the lab where they extracted the fossils from the host rocks.

 

"While some scientists once thought that each little jar-like structure of Cambrothyra was the shell of a tiny single-celled protist, our work instead supports the hypothesis that Cambrothyrawas an animal, probably a few centimeters long, that was covered with an armor that was made up of hundreds of separate tiny, jar-shaped pieces," said Moore. "In particular, Cambrothyra seems to be related to another unusual Cambrian animal, the chancelloriids, which were attached to the sea floor and looked a bit like barrel cacti -- although they were animals rather than plants which suggests that Cambrothyra may have been a relative." Cambrothyraalso shares similarities with a different Cambrian group, the halkieriids. This animal looked like a slug covered with armor. It traveled around the sea floor and thus may help support the idea that chancelloriids and halkieriids are closely related to each other, despite very different appearances.

 

Moore presented his findings at the annual meeting of the Geological Society of America in Portland, Ore., today. He completed the work in collaboration with his advisor Susannah Porter, assistant professor in the Department of Earth Science at UCSB; Michael Steiner of the Freie Universität, Berlin; and Guoxiang Li of the Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.


Shows: 886
23.10.2009 Drug clears the fog of a sleepless night

A sleepless night can leave your memory in tatters, but research in mice raises the possibility that a drug could counteract the problem.

Although anyone who has ever been deprived of sleep knows all too well how tiredness can affect the brain, the molecular mechanism behind it has eluded researchers. "One of the main problems is that sleep deprivation does a lot of things to the brain, and it's easy to get caught in a mish-mash of different effects," says Christopher Vecsey of Brandeis University in Massachusetts.

Vecsey was part of a team, led by Ted Abel at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, that examined the effects of sleep deprivation on a region of the brain called the hippocampus. This is well known to have an important role in learning and memory.

The researchers monitored the levels of several molecules in the hippocampi of mice that had been deprived of sleep for five hours. Sleepy mice showed increased levels and activity of an enzyme called PDE4, which acts on a particular suite of molecules that help to consolidate long-term memories.

To confirm that PDE4 was actively impairing memory, the team treated sleep-deprived mice with rolipram, a drug that stops PDE4 from working, and then assessed how well they remembered a fear stimulus. "When we treated [mice] with the drug we found that the memory deficits that they normally would have had with sleep deprivation were prevented," Vecsey says. The results are published in Nature1.

Rolipram and other drugs that inhibit PDE4 are already being researched for their role in disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. "The problem is that they do have side effects," Vecsey says.

The team's results pointed towards only one particular form of the PDE4 enzyme being affected by sleep deprivation. "If we can design drugs that target this form specifically, successful treatments for some of the cognitive effects of sleep deprivation could be possible," Vecsey says. Such drugs could then be used to boost memory in people with sleep disturbances. But, he says, "it's important to keep in mind also that the type of effects we were examining here are just one aspect of what sleep deprivation can cause in the brain."

"People knew that sleep deprivation affects learning and memory, but left it there because they didn't really know how it works," says Peter Giese, who studies the biology of memory at the Institute of Psychiatry at King's College London. "This paper is the next milestone because it provides a mechanism."

"It's interesting that not every pathway is affected by sleep deprivation, which was not really known," he adds. "It could have been that all pathways are affected, which would have been a much more complicated result." 

  • References

    1. Vecsey, C. G. et al. Nature461, 1122-1125 (2009). | Article
Author:  Kerri Smith
Shows: 934
23.10.2009 How City Noise is Shaping Bird Song

Did you know birds sing in dialect? They do. The song of a great tit from the countryside is a far cry from that of his city cousin. And some song dialects can change nearly as fast as human slang—the Indigo Bunting changes tune from year to year.

To investigate the cultural evolution of such songsresearchers have recently completed a study of adjacent White-crowned sparrow dialects from 1969 to 1998 in San Francisco. Biologist David Luther of the University of Maryland and ornithologist Luis Baptista of the California Academy of Sciences hypothesized that the pressures of urban noise would tend, over time, to eliminate the lower ranges of the bird's song and cause the sparrows to prefer to learn songsat the higher range. Simply put, birds that sang too low would be drowned out by rumbling buses, honking cars, or other typical city noises. 

And that's exactly what they found.

The lowest frequencies of bird song in the Summer of Love were lower than those to be found during the Dotcom craze. And since sparrows are relatively short-lived—average lifespan of just two years—this effect spanned generations. Much like humans, the sparrows seem to be raising their voices to be heard over the sounds of the city. 

At least one birdsong dialect died out entirely, though there were some bilingual birds, and the so-called San Francisco dialect came to dominate all songs, likely because it was tuned higher.  

It seems that the need for effective communication in the local environment is the fundamental driver of cultural traits that are passed on from one generation to the next. Ya hear that?!

Author:  David Biello
Shows: 905
22.10.2009 Junk food turns rats into addicts
Junk food elicits addictive behavior in rats similar to the behaviors of rats addicted to heroin, a new study finds. Pleasure centers in the brains of rats addicted to high-fat, high-calorie diets became less responsive as the binging wore on, making the rats consume more and more food. The results, presented October 20 at the Society for Neuroscience’s annual meeting, may help explain the changes in the brain that lead people to overeat.

“This is the most complete evidence to date that suggests obesity and drug addiction have common neurobiological underpinnings,” says study coauthor Paul Johnson of the Scripps Research Institute in Jupiter, Fla.

To see how junk food affects the brain’s natural reward system — the network of nerve cells that release feel-good chemicals — Johnson started at the grocery store. He loaded up on typical Western fare, including Ho Hos, sausage, pound cake, bacon and cheesecake. Johnson fed rats either a standard diet of high-nutrient, low-calorie chow, or unlimited amounts of the palatable junk food. Rats that ate the junk food soon developed compulsive eating habits and became obese. “They’re taking in twice the amount of calories as the control rats,” says Johnson’s coauthor Paul Kenny, also of Scripps.

Johnson and Kenny wanted to know if this overeating affected the pleasure centers of the rats’ brains, the regions responsible for drug addiction. The researchers used electrical stimulations to activate these reward centers and induce pleasure. Rats could control the amount of feel-good stimulation by running on a wheel — the more they ran, the more stimulation they got. The rats fed junk food ran more, indicating that they needed more brain stimulation to feel good.

After just five days on the junk food diet, rats showed “profound reductions” in the sensitivity of their brains’ pleasure centers, suggesting that the animals quickly became habituated to the food. As a result, the rats ate more food to get the same amount of pleasure. Just as heroin addicts require more and more of the drug to feel good, rats needed more and more of the junk food. “They lose control,” Kenny says. “This is the hallmark of addiction.”

To see how strong the drive to eat junk food was, the researchers exposed the rats to a foot shock when they ate the high-fat food. Rats that had not been constantly exposed to the junk food quickly stopped eating. But the foot shock didn’t faze rats accustomed to the junk food — they continued to eat, even though they knew the shock was coming.

“What we have are these core features of addiction, and these animals are hitting each one of these features,” Kenny says.

These reward pathway deficits persisted for weeks after the rats stopped eating the junk food, the researchers found. “It’s almost as if you break these things, it’s very, very hard to go back to the way things were before,” Kenny says. When the junk food was taken away and the rats had access only to nutritious chow (what Kenny calls the “salad option”), the obese rats refused to eat. “They starve themselves for two weeks afterward,” Kenny says. “Their dietary preferences are dramatically shifted.”

Scientists are interested in determining the long-term effect of altering the reward system. “We might not see it when we look at the animal,” says obesity expert Ralph DiLeone of Yale University School of Medicine. “They might be a normal weight, but how they respond to food in the future may be permanently altered.”

Author:  By Laura Sanders
Shows: 922
22.10.2009 Tool-making Human Ancestors Inhabited Grassland Environments Two Million Years Ago
In an article published in the open-access, peer-reviewed journal PLoS ONEon October 21, 2009, Dr Thomas Plummer of Queens College at the City University of New York, Dr Richard Potts of the Smithsonian Institution National Museum of Natural History and colleagues report the oldest archeological evidence of early human activities in a grassland environment, dating to 2 million years ago. The article highlights new research and its implications concerning the environments in which human ancestors evolved.

Scientists as far back as Charles Darwin have thought that adaptation to grassland environments profoundly influenced the course of human evolution. This idea has remained well-entrenched, even with recent recognition that hominin origins took place in a woodland environment and that the adaptive landscape in Africa fluctuated dramatically in response to short-term climatic shifts.

During the critical time period between 3 and 1.5 million years ago, the origin of lithic technology and archeological sites, the evolution of Homo and Paranthropus, selection for endurance running, and novel thermoregulatory adaptations to hot, dry environments in H. erectus have all been linked to increasingly open environments in Africa.

However, ecosystems in which grassland prevails have not been documented in the geological record of Pliocene hominin evolution, so it has been unclear whether open habitats were even available to hominins, and, if so, whether hominins utilized them. In their new study, Plummer and colleagues provide the first documentation of both at the 2-million-year-old Oldowan archeological site of Kanjera South, Kenya, which has yielded both Oldowan artifacts and well-preserved faunal remains, allowing researchers to reconstruct past ecosystems.

The researchers report chemical analyses of ancient soils and mammalian teeth, as well as other faunal data, from the ~2.0-million-year-old archeological sites at Kanjera South, located in western Kenya. The principal collaborating institutions of the Kanjera project are QueensCollege of the City University of New York, the Smithsonian Institution's Human Origins Program, and the NationalMuseums of Kenya. The findings demonstrate that the recently excavated archeological sites that preserve Oldowan tools, the oldest-known type of stone technology, were located in a grassland-dominated ecosystem during the crucial time period.

The study documents what was previously speculated based on indirect evidence -- that grassland-dominated ecosystems did, in fact, exist during the Plio-Pleistocene (ca. 2.5-1.5 million years ago) and that early human tool-makers were active in open settings. Other recent research shows that the Kanjera hominins obtained meat and bone marrow from a variety of animals and that they carried stone raw materials over surprisingly long distances in this grassland setting. A comparison with other Oldowan sites shows that by 2.0 million years ago, hominins, almost certainly of the genus Homo, lived in a wide range of habitats in East Africa, from open grassland to woodland and dry forest.

Plummer and colleagues conclude that early Homo was flexible in its habitat use and that the ability to find resources in both open and wooded habitats was a key part of its adaptation. This strongly contrasts with the habitat usage of older species of Australopithecus and appears to signify an important shift in early humans' use of the landscape.

Funding from the L. S. B. Leakey Foundation, the Leverhulme Trust, the National Geographic Society, the National Science Foundation, the Professional Staff Congress-City University of New York Research Award Program, and the Wenner-Gren Foundation for Kanjera field and laboratory research is gratefully acknowledged. Logistical support was provided by the Human Origins Program of the Smithsonian Institution. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.


Journal reference:

  1. Plummer TW, Ditchfield PW, Bishop LC, Kingston JD, Ferraro JV, et al. Oldest Evidence of Toolmaking Hominins in a Grassland-Dominated Ecosystem. PLoS ONE, 2009; 4(9): e7199 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0007199

Shows: 1111
22.10.2009 Prehistoric Clovis culture roamed southwards

Scientists have discovered a site containing the most extensive evidence seen so far in Mexico for the Clovis culture. The find extends the range of America's oldest identifiable culture, which roamed North America about 13,000 years ago.

The bed of artefacts in the state of Sonora in northwest Mexico also includes the bones of an extinct cousin of the mastodon called a gomphothere. The beast was probably hunted and killed by the Clovis people, known for their distinctive spear points, who mysteriously disappeared within about 500 years of leaving their first archeological traces.

Intact Clovis camp sites and extensive evidence of hunting has been found across the United States, with the highest concentration of sites just north of the Mexican border, in the San Pedro River basin of southeastern Arizona. But relatively little is known about their activities in what is now Mexico, despite about 25 discoveries of Clovis tools and other artefacts being made in the region during the past decade.

A team led by Vance Holliday of the University of Arizona in Tucson, in collaboration with Guadalupe Sanchez-Miranda of the National Institute of Anthropology and History in Mexico City, uncovered the new Clovis site at El Fin Del Mundo — which translates to 'the end of the Earth' — roughly 100 kilometres northwest of Hermosillo, on isolated ranch land.

Team member Susan Mentzer of the University of Arizona presented the findings at the annual meeting of the Geological Society of America this week in Portland, Oregon. Radiocarbon dating and other analyses of buried artefacts and bones suggested that they were left there nearly 13,000 years ago, and that the site was once close to a stream.

The gomphothere was a juvenile, Mentzer said, and was a kind that had two rather than four tusks. Chips of rock were discovered in the bone bed, and the site included a variety of tools, including scrapers and blades. More dating and analysis is under way on specimens from the location.

Author:  Rex Dalton
Shows: 938
21.10.2009 Pre-Columbian Societies Knew a Thing About Extracting Gold
When Spanish conquistadors seized the Inka emperor Atawalpa in 1532, they demanded an enormous ransom of silver and gold. For weeks, llama trains carried tons of gold and silver statues, cups, and other objects to the Europeans, who then ordered them melted down to ingots for transport back to Spain. Such an enormous stash suggests that the Andean people knew sophisticated metallurgy, but there has been little evidence to support this. Now a team of geologists and archaeologists have found clues that these indigenous people refined gold with mercury amalgamation, an important metallurgical technique that is still in use today.

To extract precious metals from ore, workers mix liquid mercury with finely ground gold or silver ore, creating an amalgam or alloy. They then separate out the heavier amalgam and heat it to boil away the mercury, arriving at almost-pure silver or gold. The Romans knew of mercury amalgamation in the 1st century, but it was not widespread in Europe until the 12th century. Polish engineer-archaeologist Arthur Posnansky insisted as far back as 1945 that amalgamation was used near the famed Incan site of Machu Picchu, but archaeologists have always vigorously disputed these claims, noting that much of Posnansky's work was overly credulous. Instead, experts believed that the process was nonexistent in the Americas until colonist Bartolomé de Medina developed a variant in Mexico in 1557.

But William Brooks, a geologist based in Reston, Virginia, couldn't believe that societies, which produced large quantities of gold, lacked techniques to recover it from placer gold, the minute gold flakes in stream beds found along coastal Peru. So Brooks and colleagues in Peru and Colombia analyzed residual mercury levels in seven samples of pre-European-contact gold foil--three from the Sicàn culture, which existed between 750 C.E. and 1375 C.E. in Peru, and four from Colombia. The team found signs of amalgamation similar to those seen in contemporary gold foil in southeastern Peru, it reports today at the Geological Society of America's annual meeting in Portland, Oregon. "We think this technique was used throughout the Andes, probably centuries before it was commonly used in Europe," Brooks says.

The researchers' work has not escaped criticism, however. Almost all known Sicàn gold artifacts were looted from elite burial sites, which makes their context uncertain, says Izumi Shimada of Southern Illinois University in Carbondale, director of the Sicàn Archaeological Project. Moreover, he says, both artifacts and bodies in the tombs were often "painted from head to foot in cinnabar," a brilliant vermillion pigment made from a mercury-sulfur compound, which could have contaminated the scientists' measurements. To confirm mercury amalgamation, Shimada says, "would require an independent testing of items recovered from a nonfunerary context."

Brooks agrees that contamination is a potential issue and says that the museums preparing their samples carefully removed the cinnabar deposits. If there were still cinnabar contamination, however, Brooks says he would have expected random variations between samples instead of the consistent measurements his team observed. Also, amalgamation, he says, just makes sense: "They had to have some way to produce all that gold, and an obvious candidate is the metallurgical technique used everywhere else in the world."

Author:  By Charles C. Mann
Shows: 886
21.10.2009 Brain transplant bird points to origin of communication

Creating chimeras with the higher brain of a songbird and the hindbrain of a non-singer may one day shed light on the evolution of birdsong, and even human speech.

"The goal is to get a non-singing animal that can actually learn how to imitate sounds," says Erich Jarvis, a neuroscientist at Duke University in Durham, North Carolina. The chimera would have the hindbrain of a quail and the forebrain of the zebra finch. "I knew when I started this project that it was one of those crazy ones."

Both people and songbirds learn how to communicate in infancy by listening to adults and imitating their sounds. In the embryo, neurons from learning centres in the higher brain, or forebrain, connect up with neurons in the hindbrain that control vocal muscles in the throat. These connections are absent in non-singing birds such as quails, which simply squawk. A quail's call is innate and is not learned from a parent.

Jarvis's team is investigating how forebrain neurons are normally guided to the hindbrain in a songbird by doing brain transplants on bird embryos that are 2 days old – the size of a pen tip. Jarvis announced his first results at the Society for Neuroscience's annual meetingin Chicago last week. The team has removed the tissue from a quail embryo that gives rise to the forebrain and replaced it with the same tissue from a finch embryo. They found that some of the finch neurons make a beeline for the quail's hindbrain.

The team do not yet know if the neurons can successfully connect with the hindbrain, however, and so far all the chimeric birds have died just before hatching.

That's probably because the two species develop too differently, Jarvis says. Quail chicks are more mature when they hatch compared with finch chicks, which are relatively helpless. The team are considering switching quails for a species that develops at a similar pace to finches.

Other researchers have used partial brain transplants between quails and chickens to show that the midbrain directs the innate squawking or crowing in non-singing birds. This is the first time, however, that transplants have been used to investigate song learning in songbirds.

Author:  by Ewen Callaway
Shows: 874
21.10.2009 Family Tree For Cattle, Other Ruminants Created
Pairing a new approach to prepare ancient DNA with a new scientific technique developed specifically to genotype a cow, an MU animal scientist, along with a team of international researchers, created a very accurate and widespread "family tree" for cows and other ruminants, going back as far as 29 million years.

This genetic information could allow scientists to understand the evolution of cattle, ruminants and other animals. This same technique also could be used to verify ancient relatives to humans, help farmers develop healthier and more efficient cattle, and assist scientists who are studying human diseases, according to the research, which is being published in this week's edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS).

"We studied 678 different animals, representing 61 different species, and using the new Illumina cow 'SNP chip,' or 'snip chip,' we were able to generate some very precise genetic data for which the chip was not designed," said Jerry Taylor, a professor of animal science in the MU College of Agriculture, Food and Natural Resource and lead author of the study. "Our SNP chips allow scientists to examine hundreds of thousands of points on an animal's genome simultaneously. When we applied this technique to 48 recognized breeds of cattle, we were able to construct a family tree and infer the history of cattle domestication and breed formation across the globe."

The research revealed the history of European cattle, with domesticated cattle moving sequentially through Turkey, the Balkans and Italy, then spreading through Central Europe and France, and ending in Britain. The scientists also found evidence supporting a second route of ancient cattle into Europe by way of the Iberian Peninsula.

The applications for this technology and information discovered in the research could help solve a number of problems and answer questions about evolution, including how humans are related to extinct hominids and how different plant species are related to each other, Taylor said.

Based on the findings, animal scientists can begin to study evolution of certain breeds. For example, if breeds of cattle with high amounts of intramuscular fat, which is known as marbling, are closely related to each other, then they likely share the same gene variations to create the marbling, which is a trait some beef consumers prefer. On the other hand, if those same cattle are not closely related, different genetic variants might be at work. Understanding how different genetic variations allow high levels of marbling, feed efficiency and disease resistance in cattle could have a large economic impact for farmers who raise cattle throughout the world.

"This also provides us an opportunity to identify animal models for human disease since, for example, an excess amount of intramuscular fat in humans is associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes," Taylor said. We're all interested in reconstructing our ancestry. This is essentially the same thing, except that we're able to zoom out by millions of years and include relatives who are long gone. The amazing thing about this technique is that it is very fast and extremely cheap. For relatively small amounts of money, we can generate the data that will allow us to recreate millions of years of evolutionary history."


Adapted from materials provided by University of Missouri-Columbia, via EurekAlert!, a service of AAAS.
Shows: 1052
20.10.2009 We will be billions of dollars poorer when coral dies

The world's coral reefs save us $172 billion every year, but they're on the brink of collapse (PDF) because of political inertia, an ecological economist has told the global Diversitas biodiversity conference in Cape Town, South Africa.

The claim was made by Pavan Sukhdev, an economist based at United Nations Environment Programme's World Conservation Monitoring Centre in Cambridge, UK. Sukhdev is head of a European Commission study called The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB), an international project to raise awareness about the economic benefits of biodiversity.

Previously, it had been estimated that coral reefs "earn" nearly $30 billion a year (PDF) by attracting tourists, protecting commercial fish species and protecting coasts from storm surges.

To investigate the economic value of coral reefs further, Sukhdev and his colleagues reviewed 80 studies carried out between 1995 to 2009. Their work suggests that a single hectare of coral reef can be worth from $130,000 to $1.2 million a year.

Pretty bleak

However, discussing the economic value of coral reefs is like fiddling while Rome burns, says Sukhdev. "The entire ecosystem is on the point of collapse," he says. "Unless negotiators in Copenhagen [in Denmark, at the UN climate talks in December] agree to limit atmospheric carbon dioxide to 350 parts per million, they will sentence the world's coral reefs to death." Politicians are currently hoping to limit CO2 to 450 parts per million, he says. "Frankly, it does look pretty bleak."

"The most cost-effective and easiest way to save our coral reefs is to reduce deforestation and boost reforestation," says Sukhdev. "I hope that politicians going to Copenhagen give the proposals to cut deforestation put forward by REDD-Plus the attention they deserve." REDD-Plusis a scheme supported by the United Nations Collaborative Programme on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries.

Stephen Mangi, an environmental economist based at Plymouth Marine Laboratory in the UK, says that it's crucial that researchers start placing economic values on the ecosystem services they study.

"In terms of policy implications, I think it is crucial for science to link directly into policy, and the provision of monetary values is one way to achieve this," says Mangi. "Money is universally understood by policy makers, economists, scientists and politicians, hence it would help policy makers make sensible and defendable decisions when weighing up alternative and competing management options for marine ecosystems."

If we do lose our coral reefs, we'll never be able to recreate the services they provide free of charge, says Sukhdev. "How could we afford to feed the 500 million people who depend on coral reefs for the fish they eat?" he asks. "And how do you recreate the joy of diving on a coral reef?"

Author:  by Shanta Barley
Shows: 805
20.10.2009 Conservation: Minimum Population Size Targets Too Low To Prevent Extinction?
Conservation biologists are setting their minimum population size targets too low to prevent extinction.

That's according to a new study by University of Adelaide and Macquarie University scientists which has shown that populations of endangered species are unlikely to persist in the face of global climate change and habitat loss unless they number around 5000 mature individuals or more.

The findings have been published online in the journal Biological Conservation.

"Conservation biologists routinely underestimate or ignore the number of animals or plants required to prevent extinction," says lead author Dr Lochran Traill, from the University of Adelaide's Environment Institute.

"Often, they aim to maintain tens or hundreds of individuals, when thousands are actually needed. Our review found that populations smaller than about 5000 had unacceptably high extinction rates. This suggests that many targets for conservation recovery are simply too small to do much good in the long run."

A long-standing idea in species restoration programs is the so-called '50/500' rule. This states that at least 50 adults are required to avoid the damaging effects of inbreeding, and 500 to avoid extinctions due to the inability to evolve to cope with environmental change.

"Our research suggests that the 50/500 rule is at least an order of magnitude too small to effectively stave off extinction," says Dr Traill. "This does not necessarily imply that populations smaller than 5000 are doomed. But it does highlight the challenge that small populations face in adapting to a rapidly changing world."

Team member Professor Richard Frankham, from Macquarie University's Department of Biological Sciences, says: "Genetic diversity within populations allows them to evolve to cope with environmental change, and genetic loss equates to fragility in the face of such changes."

Conservation biologists worldwide are battling to prevent a mass extinction event in the face of a growing human population and its associated impact on the planet.

"The conservation management bar needs to be a lot higher," says Dr Traill. "However, we shouldn't necessarily give up on critically endangered species numbering a few hundred of individuals in the wild. Acceptance that more needs to be done if we are to stop 'managing for extinction' should force decision makers to be more explicit about what they are aiming for, and what they are willing to trade off, when allocating conservation funds."


Journal reference:

Traill et al. Pragmatic population viability targets in a rapidly changing world. Biological Conservation, 2009; DOI: 10.1016/j.biocon.2009.09.001

Shows: 883
20.10.2009 Giant Impact Near India — Not Mexico — May Have Killed Dinosaurs

A huge, mysterious basin off the coast of India could be the largest, multi-ringed impact crater ever found on Earth. And if a new study is right, this impact may supercede the one that created the Chicxulubcrater off Mexico's Yucatán Peninsula as what may have been responsible for killing the dinosaurs 65 million years ago. Sankar Chatterjee of Texas Tech University and a team of researchers have been studying a 500-kilometer-wide (300-mile-wide) depression on the Indian Ocean seafloor which was likely created by a bolideperhaps 40 kilometers (25 miles) in diameter. Such an event would have triggered worldwide climate changes, including intensified volcanism, that led to mass extinction.

Since the 1990's the leading candidate for what killed the dinosaurs was a ten-kilometer-wide (six-mile-wide) asteroid thought to have carved out the Chicxulub crater. This impact may have done the job, but if not, 300,000 later the impact that created the Shiva basin surely would have finished off large life on Earth.

The massive Shiva basin, a submerged depression west of India that is intensely mined for its oil and gas resources. Some complex craters are among the most productive hydrocarbon sites on the planet.

“If we are right, this is the largest crater known on our planet,” Chatterjee said. “A bolide of this size, creates its own tectonics.”

However, some geologists have disputed whether the Shiva depression was created by an impact, or if it is just a hole in Earth's crust, possibly created by volcanism. Christian Koeberl, a geochemist at the University of Vienna in Austria, has been adamant in the past that Shiva is not an impact crater. He said not only is there no evidence of impact in the case of Shiva, there is no crater structure. He calls Shiva, "a figment of imagination."

"There's not even ambiguous evidence, or inconclusive evidence," says Koeberl. "There are a couple of people that keep pushing for some crater in the Indian Ocean, but this is inconsistent not only with the regional geology and geophysics, but also with anything we know about impact cratering."

But Chatterjee feels sure that Shiva is an impact crater and said the geological evidence is dramatic. Shiva's outer rim forms a rough, faulted ring some 500 kilometers in diameter, encircling the central peak, known as the Bombay High, which would be 3 miles tall from the ocean floor (about the height of Mount McKinley). Most of the crater lies submerged on India's continental shelf, but where it does come ashore it is marked by tall cliffs, active faults and hot springs. The impact appears to have sheared or destroyed much of the 30-mile-thick granite layer in the western coast of India.

If the huge depression was created by an impact, Earth's crust at the point of collision would have been vaporized, leaving nothing but ultra-hot mantle material to well up in its place. It is likely that the impact enhanced the nearby Deccan Traps volcaniceruptions that covered much of western India. What's more, the impact broke the Seychelles islands off of the Indian tectonic plate, and sent them drifting toward Africa.

The team hopes to go India later this year to examine rocks drill from the center of the putative crater for clues that would prove the strange basin was formed by a gigantic impact.

“Rocks from the bottom of the crater will tell us the telltale sign of the impact event from shattered and melted target rocks. And we want to see if there are breccias, shocked quartz, and an iridium anomaly,” Chatterjee said. Asteroids are rich in iridium, and such anomalies are thought of as the fingerprint of an impact.

Author:  by Nancy Atkinson
Shows: 1136
19.10.2009 Scientists Remove Amyloid Plaques From Brains Of Live Animals With Alzheimer's Disease
A breakthrough discovery by scientists from the Mayo Clinic in Jacksonville, FL, may lead to a new treatment for Alzheimer's Disease that actually removes amyloid plaques — considered a hallmark of the disease — from patients' brains.

This discovery, published online in The FASEB Journal, is based on the unexpected finding that when the brain's immune cells (microglia) are activated by the interleukin-6 protein (IL-6), they actually remove plaques instead of causing them or making them worse. The research was performed in a model of Alzheimer's disease established in mice.

"Our study highlights the notion that manipulating the brain's immune response could be translated into clinically tolerated regimens for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases," said Pritam Das, co-author of the study, from the Mayo Clinic in Jacksonville, FL.

Das and colleagues made this unexpected discovery when they initially set out to prove that the activation of microgila trigger inflammation, making the disease worse. Their hypothesis was that microglia would attempt to remove the plaques, but would be unable to do so, and in the process cause excessive inflammation. To the surprise of the researchers, when microglia were activated by IL-6, they cleared the plaques from the brains.

To do this, the researchers over-expressed IL-6 in the brains of newborn mice that had yet to develop any amyloid plaques, as well in mice with pre-existing plaques. Using somatic brain transgenesis technology, scientists analyzed the effect of IL-6 on brain neuro-inflammation and plaque deposition. In both groups of mice, the presence of IL-6 lead to the clearance of amyloid plaques from the brain. Researchers then set out to determine exactly how IL-6 worked to clear the plaques and discovered that the inflammation induced by IL-6 directed the microglia to express proteins that removed the plaques. This research suggests that manipulating the brain's own immune cells through inflammatory mediators could lead to new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, particularly Alzheimer's disease.

"This model is as close to human pathology as animal models get. These results give us an exciting lead to newer, more effective treatments of Alzheimer's disease," said Gerald Weissmann, M.D., Editor-in-Chief of The FASEB Journal. "This study demonstrates that investment in experimental biology is the best way to approach the challenge posed by an aging population to the cost of health care."


Journal reference:

  1. Paramita Chakrabarty, Karen Jansen-West, Amanda Beccard, Carolina Ceballos-Diaz, Yona Levites, Christophe Verbeeck, Abba C. Zubair, Dennis Dickson, Todd E. Golde, and Pritam Das. Massive gliosis induced by interleukin-6 suppresses A  deposition in vivo: evidence against inflammation as a driving force for amyloid deposition. The FASEB Journal, 2009; DOI: 10.1096/fj.09-141754

Shows: 947
19.10.2009 Do Three Meals A Day Keep Fungi Away? Protective Effect Of Being Warm-blooded
The fact that they eat a lot – and often – may explain why most people and other mammals are protected from the majority of fungal pathogens, according to research from Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University.

The research, published in the Journal of Infectious Diseases, showed that the elevated body temperature of mammals – the familiar 98.6º F or 37º C in people – is too high for the vast majority of potential fungal invaders to survive.

"Fungal strains undergo a major loss of ability to grow as we move to mammalian temperatures," said Arturo Casadevall, M.D., Ph.D., chair and professor of microbiology & immunology at Einstein. Dr. Casadevall conducted the study in conjunction with Vincent A. Robert of the Utrecht, Netherlands-based Fungal Biodiversity Center, also known as Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures.

"Our study makes the argument that our warm temperatures may have evolved to protect us against fungal diseases," said Dr. Casadevall. "And being warm-blooded and therefore largely resistant to fungal infections may help explain the dominance of mammals after the age of dinosaurs."

There are roughly 1.5 million fungal species. Of these, only a few hundred are pathogenic to mammals. Fungal infections in people are often the result of an impaired immune function. By contrast, an estimated 270,000 fungal species are pathogenic to plants and 50,000 species infect insects. Frogs and other amphibians are prone to fungal pathogens, one of which, chytridiomycosis, is currently raging through frogs worldwide. Fungi are also important in the decomposition of plants.

In their study, the researchers investigated how 4,082 different fungal strains from the Utrecht collection grew in temperatures ranging from chilly – 4º C or 39º F – to desert hot – 45º C or 113º F. They found that nearly all of them grew well in temperatures up to 30º C. Beyond that, though, the number of successful species declined by 6 percent for every one degree centigrade increase. Most could not grow at mammalian temperatures. Those that did well in hotter conditions were often from warm-blooded sources.

Dr. Casadevall noted that the current study covered thousands of fungal strains and made use of a computerized database of the Utrecht collection. In the past, this type of research would have required retrieving this information manually, which Dr. Casadevall noted would have been a very time-consuming task.

"This was possible only because we could use bioinformatic tools to analyze the records in the culture collection," he said. "There is no way to do a study like this without such technology given the enormous numbers of samples and the labor involved."

The results of the study, he added, could help explain why mammals maintain a seemingly energy-wasteful lifestyle requiring a great deal of food. By contrast, reptiles need only eat once a day or even less often.

"The payoff, however, may be that mammals are much more resistant to soil and plant-borne fungal pathogens than are reptiles and other cold-blooded vertebrates," said Dr. Casadevall.

This stronger immunity to fungi could explain why mammals rose to dominance after the dinosaur extinction event 65 million years ago. Indeed, the fungal bloom that occurred then may be one reason for the extinction of dinosaurs, a possibility outlined in a 2004 Fungal Genetics and Biology paper from Dr. Casadevall.


Journal references:

  1. Vincent A. Robert, Arturo Casadevall. Vertebrate Endothermy Restricts Most Fungi as Potential Pathogens. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 2009; 091014103031021 DOI: 10.1086/644642
  2. Arturo Casadevall. Fungal virulence, vertebrate endothermy, and dinosaur extinction: is there a connection?Fungal Genetics and Biology, 2005; 42 (2): 98 DOI: 10.1016/j.fgb.2004.11.008

Shows: 987
16.10.2009 200,000-year-old Cut Of Meat: Archaeologists Shed Light On Life, Diet And Society
Contestants on TV shows like Top Chef and Hell's Kitchen know that their meat-cutting skills will be scrutinized by a panel of unforgiving judges. Now, new archaeological evidence is getting the same scrutiny by scientists at Tel Aviv University and the University of Arizona.

Their research is providing new clues about how, where and when our communal habits of butchering meat developed, and they're changing the way anthropologists, zoologists and archaeologists think about our evolutionary development, economics and social behaviors through the millennia.

Presented in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, new finds unearthed at Qesem Cave in Israel suggest that during the late Lower Paleolithic period (between 400,000 and 200,000 years ago), people hunted and shared meat differently than they did in later times. Instead of a prey's carcass being prepared by just one or two persons resulting in clear and repeated cutting marks — the forefathers of the modern butcher — cut marks on ancient animal bones suggest something else.

Different rules of the game

"The cut marks we are finding are both more abundant and more randomly oriented than those observed in later times, such as the Middle and Upper Paleolithic periods," says Prof. Avi Gopher of TAU's Department of Archaeology. "What this could mean is that either one person from the clan butchered the group's meat in a few episodes over time, or multiple persons hacked away at it in tandem," he interprets. This finding provides clues as to social organization and structures in these early groups of hunters and gatherers, he adds.

Among human hunters in the past 200,000 years, from southern Africa to upstate New York or sub-arctic Canada, "there are distinctive patterns of how people hunt, who owns the products of the hunt, how carcasses are butchered and shared," Prof. Gopher says. "The rules of sharing are one of the basic organizing principles of hunter-gatherer cultures. From 200,000 years ago to the present day, the patterns of meat-sharing and butchering run in a long clear line. But in the Qesem Cave, something different was happening. There was a distinct shift about 200,000 years ago, and archaeologists and anthropologists may have to reinterpret hunting and meat-sharing rituals."

Meat-sharing practices, Prof. Gopher says, can tell present-day archaeologists about who was in a camp, how people dealt with danger and how societies were organized. "The basic logic of butchering large animals has not changed for a long time. Everyone knows how to deal with the cuts of meat, and we see cut marks on bones that are very distinctive and similar, matching even those of modern butchers. It's the more random slash marks on the bones in Qesem that suggests something new."

Where's the beef?

The Qesem Cave finds demonstrate that man was at the top of the food chain during this period, but that they shared the meat differently than their later cousins. The TAU excavators and Prof. Mary Stiner of the University of Arizona (Tucson) hypothesize that the Qesem Cave people hunted cooperatively. After the hunt, they carried the highest-quality body parts of their prey back to the cave, where the meat was cut using stone-blade tools and then cooked on the fire.

"We believe this reflects a different way of butchering and sharing. More than one person was doing the job, and it fits our expectations of a less formal structure of cooperation," says Prof. Gopher. "The major point here is that around 200,000 years ago or before, there was a change in behavior. What does it mean? Time and further excavations may tell."

Qesem, which means "magic" in Hebrew, was discovered seven miles east of Tel Aviv about nine years ago during highway construction. It is being excavated on behalf of TAU's Department of Archaeology by Prof. Avi Gopher and Dr. Ran Barkai in collaboration with an international group of experts. The cave contains the remains of animal bones dating back to 400,000 years ago. Most of the remains are from fallow deer, others from wild ancestors of horse, cattle, pig, and even some tortoise. The data that this dig provides has been invaluable: Until now there was considerable speculation as to whether or not people from the late Lower Paleolithic era were able to hunt at all, or whether they were reduced to scavenging, the researchers say.


Journal reference:

  1. Mary C. Stiner, Ran Barkai, Avi Gopher. Cooperative hunting and meat sharing 400-200 kya at Qesem Cave, Israel. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2009; 106 (32): 13207 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0900564106

Shows: 935
16.10.2009 Cell invasion caught on camera

A T cell (green) is seen moving with the flow of blood before crawling against it and exiting the blood vessel.Ingo Bartholomaeuset al, Nature 2009Despite being surrounded by a supposedly unbreachable defensive line, the body's central nervous system can still be attacked by autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis.

Now, researchers led by Alexander Flügel, director of the Institute for Multiple Sclerosis Research at the University Medical Centre in Göttingen, Germany, have watched in real time as T cells — blood cells linked to the immune response — penetrate the central nervous system of rats and manifest as a disease.

"There's a question about how immune cells that attack the brain get entry because [it] is shielded by the blood-brain barrier," Flügel says. Histological studies have clearly shown immune cells can enter brain tissue, but no one has seen this happen until now. "Our question was, can we visualize this process?" he says.

To answer this question Flügel's team labelled some disease-causing T cells with green fluorescent protein and introduced them into the veins of rats. Then, using infrared lasers in a technique called two-photon imaging, they watched the movements of the cells as they caused experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, an animal model of multiple sclerosis. The work is reported in Nature1.

Only recently has the technology needed for all these elements become sophisticated enough to make this work possible, says Flügel.

Unexpectedly, the researchers found that some assumptions about how T cells gain entry to the nervous system are misplaced. Textbook knowledge, says Flügel, is that the cells roll along blood vessels then attach and migrate into the nervous-system tissue.

Instead, as illustrated in the linked videos, his team found that after rolling along the the inside of the vessel, the cells stop then crawl backagainst the flow of blood before exiting the vessel. Also, once they have passed through the vessel they do not immediately infiltrate the nervous-system tissue. Rather, they continue to crawl along the outside of the vessels until they meet another type of blood cell, called phagocytes. Only then do they enter the nervous system and begin to manifest the disease.

The findings both improve researchers' understanding of how some treatments work and identify which structures involved in the movement of the T cells might be useful to target with future therapies.

  • References

    1. Bartholomäus, I. et al. Nature advance online publication "doi:10.1038/nature08478"http://www.nature.com/uidfinder/10.1038/nature08478 (2009).
Author:  Daniel Cressey
Shows: 1271
15.10.2009 Wired Science News for Your Neurons Scientists Make Desktop Black Hole

Two Chinese scientists have successfully made an artificial black hole. Since you’re still reading this, it’s safe to say that Earth hasn’t been sucked into its vortex.

That’s because a black hole doesn’t technically require a massive, highly concentrated gravitational field that prevents light from escaping, as postulated by Albert Einstein. It just needs to capture light — or, to be more precise, electromagnetic radiation, of which visually perceived light is one form.

Together, the patterns completely absorbed microwave radiation coming from any direction, and converted their energy to heat.

Like a near-black hole designed earlier this year and made from photon-absorbing carbon nanotubes, the material could be used in solar energy panels.

Author:  By Brandon Keim
Shows: 1144
15.10.2009 Brain has its own predictive text function

Researchers believe the reason that dyslexics struggle to read at speed is that they are missing the ability, and hope their discovery could lead to new treatments for the condition.

The British neuroscientists found that the reason most people can predict words and sentences as they are being scanned by the eye.

Rather than read every word and sentence to the end before coming up with its meaning, the brain makes an educated guess and then moves on.

As we become more literate, the brain becomes ever more adept at predicting sentences and therefore quicker at reading.

Traditionally it was thought that a part of the brain known as the angular gyrus acted like a "dictionary" that translates letters and words into meaning, said Professor Cathy Price, a cognitive neuroscientist at University College London.

"In fact, we have shown that its role is more in anticipating what our eye will see – more akin to the predictive texting function on a mobile phone," she said.

"We think this brings us a step closer to our understanding of dyslexia. It has changed my knowledge of how reading occurs."

The discovery, published in the journal Nature, came after a unique study into former guerrilla fighters in Colombia.

The team scanned the brains of illiterate adult rebels, who had had no education, before and after they had undertaken a five year reading and writing course.

They found that for those participants who had learnt to read, the density of grey matter - where the 'processing' is done - was higher in several areas of the left hemisphere of the brain.

These were the areas that are responsible for recognising letter shapes and translating the letters into speech sounds and their meanings.

Reading also increased the strength of the "white matter" connections between the different processing regions.

Particularly important were the connections to and from the angular gyrus, which is at top left of the brain, it was found.

Scientists have known for over 150 years that this brain region is important for reading, but the new research has shown that its role had been misunderstood.

Previously, it was thought that the angular gyrus recognised the shapes of words prior to finding their sounds and meanings. In fact, the researchers showed that the angular gyrus is not directly involved in translating visual words into their sounds and meanings.

Instead, it supports this process by providing predictions of what the brain is expecting to see.

Author:  By Richard Alleyne
Shows: 833
15.10.2009 Kew seed bank has 10% of all plants – and counting

IT'S pink, grows in China, and wild Asian elephants love it. The Yunnan banana (Musa iterans) is also the 24,200th wild plant species banked by the Kew Millennium Seed Bank Partnership. It marks the point at which the bank has reached its initial target of collecting 10 per cent of the world's known wild plant species.

Set up in 2000, the seed bank at Kew Gardens in Londonis the world's largest for wild plants. The idea is that the seeds can all be accessed in one place to help researchers hunt for potential medicinal species and crops resilient to climate change.

"We have every reason to be proud, but there's much left to be done," says Paul Smith, head of the partnership. Its next target is to have banked one-quarter of the world's wild species by 2020.

The other large collection is the Svalbard Global Seed Vault in Norway, which collects crops to preserve them in case of disease.

Shows: 1007
15.10.2009 Chimpanzees Help Each Other On Request But Not Voluntarily
The evolution of altruism has long puzzled researchers and has mainly been explained previously from ultimate perspectives—"I will help you now because I expect there to be some long-term benefit to me". However, a new study by researchers at the Primate Research Institute (PRI) and the Wildlife Research Center (WRC) of Kyoto University shows that chimpanzees altruistically help conspecifics, even in the absence of direct personal gain or immediate reciprocation, although the chimpanzees were much more likely to help each other upon request than voluntarily.

The findings are published October 14 in the open-access, peer-reviewed journal PLoS ONE.

Shinya Yamamoto and colleagues studied six pairs of chimpanzees (three mother-offspring pairs and three non-kin adult pairs) in two different experiments, designed to test whether the chimpanzees would transfer a tool to a conspecific even if doing so would bring no immediate benefit to themselves. In each case, two chimpanzees would be situated in two adjacent, transparent booths, either in a straw-use situation where the chimpanzee would need access to a straw to be able to drink the juice box available to it, or in a stick-use situation where the chimpanzee would need access to a stick to drag a juice reward back into the booth.

In the first experiment, the two chimpanzees would have access to the opposite tool needed to obtain the reward in their booth—the chimpanzee that needed the straw would have access to the stick and vice-versa. In the second experiment, the mother-offspring pairs were tested in a situation where there was no opportunity for reciprocation because each individual was assigned a fixed role—giver or recipient—for 24 trials (one week's worth) before the roles were reversed.

The researchers found that the chimpanzees did spontaneously transfer tools in order to help their partner. This tool transfer occurred predominantly after the partner had actively solicited help (by poking its arm through a hole in the booth, for example, or by clapping), even when there was no hope of reciprocation from the partner (as in experiment 2) and even when the two animals were unrelated.

"Communicative interactions play an important role in altruism in chimpanzees," said Dr Yamamoto. "While humans may help others without being solicited, the chimpanzees rarely voluntarily offered an effective tool to a struggling partner. Indeed, simple observation of another's failed attempts did not elicit voluntary helping in chimpanzees."

Helping upon request may be a more economical and effective strategy. Altruistic behavior by definition produces no direct immediate benefit to the actor; making a request is a clear indicator to the actor that the recipient requires help, minimizing the risk to the actor of unnecessarily behaving altruistically. In this sense, "help upon request" is an ideal strategy since the helping is always helpful and not wasted. This type of altruism may have initially driven the prevalence and development of altruism during human evolution.

One important question for future research is whether high-frequency, voluntary altruism is a behaviour unique to humans. Some new world monkeys have demonstrated unsolicited prosociality suggesting that voluntary altruism evolved in phylogeneticallydiverse taxa but for now, there seems to be no consensus on what is the decisive factorin explaining species differences.


Journal reference:

  1. Yamamoto S, Humle T, Tanaka M. Chimpanzees Help Each Other upon Request. PLoS ONE, 2009; 4 (10): e7416 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0007416

Shows: 879
15.10.2009 Rare Frog Species Bear the Brunt of Chytrid, a Deadly Fungal Disease
Threats to wildlife survival, such as habitat loss and climate change, tend to strike some species harder than others, and the threat of chytrid, a deadly amphibian fungus, appears to be no different. A study published in this month's Ecology Letters finds that rarer species were more likely to disappear, leading to loss of frog biodiversity in Central America.

The study compares frog surveys taken at eight different sites in Costa Rica and Panama. Karen Lips, an associate professor of biology at the University of Maryland, College Park, along with Kevin Smith and Jonathan Chaseat Washington University in St. Louis, found that the average number of frog species at the eight sites dropped from 45 to 23 after the appearance of the chytrid fungus. Rare species that were only present at one or a few of the sites were disproportionately wiped out, making up more than half of the species lost.

"All species can get infected [but] the point is that not everything completely disappears," says Lips, who conducted the frog surveys that were used in the study.

Although abundant species enjoy safety in numbers, factors other than abundance could help protect certain frogs after the deadly skin fungus hits their homes. Terrestrialspecies fared better than frogs living in wet habitats, where the fungus thrives. In addition, certain genes or differences in skin chemistry may allow some species to be less susceptible to chytrid, Lips says. Even with these advantages, frogs still die from chytrid, just at slower rates. Once the fungus arrives at a site, it remains in the soil and never really goes away. "I think, in time, species will continue to go extinct," she says.

View a slide show of some of the frogs hit hardest by chytrid
Author:  By Carina Storrs
Shows: 970
14.10.2009 Butterfly is pupae-sniffing cradle-snatcher

Male zebra longwing butterflies sit on the pupae of females for up to 10 days before they hatch, ensuring they get first dibs at reproducing with them. But how do they know that they're sitting on a female?

It turns out that the female pupae of Heliconius charithoniaemit a pheromone as they approach puberty that betrays their gender before they've hatched. This allows males to perch on them, waiting for them to hatch. As soon as the females emerge, the males fertilise them.

Catalina Estrada at the University of Texas in Austin, and colleagues, extracted the chemicals found in the cuticles of 10 pupae and volatile organic compounds released by 12 other pupae in their laboratory.

The only chemical that was unique to female pupae was the pheromone monoterpene linalool oxide. Males emitted a variant, linalool.

The researchers then painted pupae with both odours. Male butterflies rarely perched on female pupae that had been daubed in male-specific linalool. In contrast, they happily re-perched on pupae daubed in linalool oxide 65 per cent of the time. This was almost as often as they returned to untouched female pupae.

"This paper offers insights into an unusual mating behaviour in Heliconius butterflies," says Chris Jiggins, who studies the species at the University of Cambridge.

Journal reference: Proceedings of the Royal Society B, DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2009.1476

Author:  by Shanta Barley
Shows: 911
14.10.2009 Europa's proposed ocean could be rich in oxygen
If there are any fish on Jupiter